Optimal kernel choice for large-scale two-sample tests

Arthur Gretton, Bharath Sriperumbudur, Dino Sejdinovic, Heiko Strathmann, Sivaraman Balakrishnan, Massimiliano Pontil, Kenji Fukumizu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

188 Scopus citations

Abstract

Given samples from distributions p and q, a two-sample test determines whether to reject the null hypothesis that p = q, based on the value of a test statistic measuring the distance between the samples. One choice of test statistic is the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD), which is a distance between embeddings of the probability distributions in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. The kernel used in obtaining these embeddings is critical in ensuring the test has high power, and correctly distinguishes unlike distributions with high probability. A means of parameter selection for the two-sample test based on the MMD is proposed. For a given test level (an upper bound on the probability of making a Type I error), the kernel is chosen so as to maximize the test power, and minimize the probability of making a Type II error. The test statistic, test threshold, and optimization over the kernel parameters are obtained with cost linear in the sample size. These properties make the kernel selection and test procedures suited to data streams, where the observations cannot all be stored in memory. In experiments, the new kernel selection approach yields a more powerful test than earlier kernel selection heuristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25
Subtitle of host publication26th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems 2012, NIPS 2012
Pages1205-1213
Number of pages9
StatePublished - 2012
Event26th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems 2012, NIPS 2012 - Lake Tahoe, NV, United States
Duration: Dec 3 2012Dec 6 2012

Publication series

NameAdvances in Neural Information Processing Systems
Volume2
ISSN (Print)1049-5258

Other

Other26th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems 2012, NIPS 2012
CountryUnited States
CityLake Tahoe, NV
Period12/3/1212/6/12

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems
  • Signal Processing

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