Ordinary least squares dipole localization is influenced by the reference

Hilde M. Huizenga, Peter C.M. Molenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


It is shown empirically, analytically and in simulations that common and average referenced recordings differentially affect the accuracy of equivalent source estimates. This effect is mediated by the influence of the reference on noise correlations. The general conclusion of this analysis is that, if software only allows for ordinary least squares estimation (OLS), then average referencing should be preferred, although these estimates will still be sub-optimal. Optimal estimates are derived by generalized least squares (GLS) which accounts for correlated noise. With GLS, average and common referenced recordings give rise to comparable accuracy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)562-567
Number of pages6
JournalElectroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1996


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this