Organization of a simple two-joint synergy in individuals with Down syndrome

Alexander S. Aruin, Gil L. Almeida, Mark Latash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Subjects with Down syndrome and age- and gender-matched control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist, flexion or extension movements in a sagittal plane, moving one of the joints as fast as possible. The hand was either pronated or supinated. In control subjects, alternating bursts of activity were seen in the agonist-antagonist muscle pair controlling the nonfocal joint. Subjects with Down syndrome, in most series, demonstrated simultaneous bursts of activity in the flexor and extensor muscles controlling both joints. This group difference was particularly pronounced for the muscles controlling the nonfocal joint. We assume that the central nervous system may use two strategies to avoid flapping of a postural joint. The more universal co-contraction strategy in Down syndrome may be viewed as an adaptive feature reflecting a general tendency of these persons to trade efficacy for safety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)256-268
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal on Mental Retardation
Volume101
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 1 1996

Fingerprint

Down Syndrome
synergy
Joints
organization
Muscles
Elbow
Wrist
Central Nervous System
Hand
human being
Synergy
gender
Safety
Group

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Health Professions(all)

Cite this

@article{cc11e6023ded4cad85a7ced173a4fd18,
title = "Organization of a simple two-joint synergy in individuals with Down syndrome",
abstract = "Subjects with Down syndrome and age- and gender-matched control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist, flexion or extension movements in a sagittal plane, moving one of the joints as fast as possible. The hand was either pronated or supinated. In control subjects, alternating bursts of activity were seen in the agonist-antagonist muscle pair controlling the nonfocal joint. Subjects with Down syndrome, in most series, demonstrated simultaneous bursts of activity in the flexor and extensor muscles controlling both joints. This group difference was particularly pronounced for the muscles controlling the nonfocal joint. We assume that the central nervous system may use two strategies to avoid flapping of a postural joint. The more universal co-contraction strategy in Down syndrome may be viewed as an adaptive feature reflecting a general tendency of these persons to trade efficacy for safety.",
author = "Aruin, {Alexander S.} and Almeida, {Gil L.} and Mark Latash",
year = "1996",
month = "11",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "101",
pages = "256--268",
journal = "American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities",
issn = "1944-7515",
publisher = "American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities",
number = "3",

}

Organization of a simple two-joint synergy in individuals with Down syndrome. / Aruin, Alexander S.; Almeida, Gil L.; Latash, Mark.

In: American Journal on Mental Retardation, Vol. 101, No. 3, 01.11.1996, p. 256-268.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Organization of a simple two-joint synergy in individuals with Down syndrome

AU - Aruin, Alexander S.

AU - Almeida, Gil L.

AU - Latash, Mark

PY - 1996/11/1

Y1 - 1996/11/1

N2 - Subjects with Down syndrome and age- and gender-matched control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist, flexion or extension movements in a sagittal plane, moving one of the joints as fast as possible. The hand was either pronated or supinated. In control subjects, alternating bursts of activity were seen in the agonist-antagonist muscle pair controlling the nonfocal joint. Subjects with Down syndrome, in most series, demonstrated simultaneous bursts of activity in the flexor and extensor muscles controlling both joints. This group difference was particularly pronounced for the muscles controlling the nonfocal joint. We assume that the central nervous system may use two strategies to avoid flapping of a postural joint. The more universal co-contraction strategy in Down syndrome may be viewed as an adaptive feature reflecting a general tendency of these persons to trade efficacy for safety.

AB - Subjects with Down syndrome and age- and gender-matched control subjects performed discrete elbow or wrist, flexion or extension movements in a sagittal plane, moving one of the joints as fast as possible. The hand was either pronated or supinated. In control subjects, alternating bursts of activity were seen in the agonist-antagonist muscle pair controlling the nonfocal joint. Subjects with Down syndrome, in most series, demonstrated simultaneous bursts of activity in the flexor and extensor muscles controlling both joints. This group difference was particularly pronounced for the muscles controlling the nonfocal joint. We assume that the central nervous system may use two strategies to avoid flapping of a postural joint. The more universal co-contraction strategy in Down syndrome may be viewed as an adaptive feature reflecting a general tendency of these persons to trade efficacy for safety.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029843325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0029843325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8933900

AN - SCOPUS:0029843325

VL - 101

SP - 256

EP - 268

JO - American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

JF - American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

SN - 1944-7515

IS - 3

ER -