BACKGROUND. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with poor outcomes after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to an increasing number of successful OLTs. The aim of this study was to examine survival and cause-specific mortality in HIV-infected patients after OLT at our institution. METHODS. A retrospective analysis of all HIV patients that underwent OLT was compared to all non-HIV patients undergoing OLT during the same period. Cumulative patient and cause-specific survival were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods; the log-rank test was used to compare the two cohorts. Fifteen HIV-infected patients and 857 non-HIV patients underwent OLT between June 1, 1999 and May 1, 2006. RESULTS. The actuarial 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates posttransplant (±standard error) were 73.3% (±11.4%) for the HIV group (unchanged from 1 to 3 years) versus 86.9% (±1.2%), 82.0% (±1.4%), and 79.4% (±1.5%) for the non-HIV group. Cumulative survival among HIV-infected recipients was not different from the non-HIV population (P=0.20). A difference was observed between the two groups in mortality rates due to infectious causes: the percentage of HIV patients dying from infection was 26.7% (4 of 15) vs. 8.2% (70 of 857) in the non-HIV group (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS. PostOLT survival was comparable in HIV and non-HIV recipients; however, HIV patients had significantly higher mortality from infectious complications. This difference occurred despite adequate control of HIV postOLT. These findings suggest that OLT can be safely performed for HIV-infected patients; however, these patients are at higher risk of mortality from infectious complications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes