PURPOSE: To report visual acuity and anatomical outcomes, as well as complications, of management of complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy using pars plana vitrectomy and intraoperative perfluoro-n-octane (PFO), and to investigate clinical features associated with anatomical and visual acuity outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative, interventional multicenter study. METHODS: The study included 555 patients (555 eyes) 15 months of age or older who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for complex retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy with intraoperative PFO at 24 study sites between April 1994 and February 1996. Main outcome measures included visual acuity and rates of retinal reattachment, reoperation, retained PFO, corneal edema, elevated intraocular pressure ([IOP] > 25 mm Hg), hypotony (IOP < 5 mm Hg), and cataract. All outcome measures were assessed at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively and at the last examination. RESULTS: The study included 555 eyes of 555 patients followed up at a median of 5.6 months. Visual acuity of 20/200 or better was recorded in 51 (10%) patients preoperatively and 85 (24%) at 6 months postoperatively. Among the 465 eyes with both preoperative and final visual acuities available, postoperative visual acuity improved in 274 (60%) eyes, remained stable in 106 (23%), and worsened in 85 (18%) eyes. Six-month follow-up data were obtained for 356 (65%) eyes; the retina was attached in 279 (78%) eyes and retained PFO was noted in 20 (6%). Throughout follow-up, 238 of 555 (43%) eyes underwent reoperation for recurrent retinal detachment. At 6 months, corneal edema, elevated IOP, and hypotony were noted in 26 of 356 (7%), 6 of 356 (2%), and 48 of 356 (15%) eyes, respectively. Of the 114 phakic eyes without significant cataract preoperatively, 105 (92%) developed a significant cataract or underwent cataract surgery during study follow-up. Operative factors significantly (P < .05) associated with recurrent retinal detachment include female gender, creation of a relaxing retinotomy, and the use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponade, air tamponade, or no tamponade (compared with perfluoropropane [C3F8] or silicone oil tamponade). Factors significantly associated with final vision of 20/200 or better include first operation anatomic success, prior scleral buckling procedure, no diabetes mellitus, no prior vitrectomy, no silicone oil retinal tamponade, and no relaxing retinotomy. Cases that require relaxing retinotomy generally represent more severe cases of complex retinal detachment and, therefore, relaxing retinotomy is likely associated with a poorer visual outcome owing to the nature of the cases selected for this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In the management of complex retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy, pars plana vitrectomy and use of intraoperative PFO was associated with retinal reattachment and preserved visual acuity in most eyes.
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