Fluvial and eolian successions of oxygen isotopes stage 3 are compared with global (GCM) and regional climate (RCM) modeling experiments of the stage 3 and last glacial maximum climate in Europe. Differences in precipitation between stage-3 stades and interstades were minor, which is confirmed by the fluvial successions. The fluvial response to climate variation is non-uniform, and in southern Europe more pronounced than in northern Europe. The model simulations indicate a strong western winter circulation over Europe during stage 3, which is supported by the eolian deposits data. Wind speeds in the last glacial maximum simulation appear modest compared with those of stage 3, which contrasts with the abundance of eolian deposits. This suggests that during glacial climates the stabilizing effect of vegetation determines eolian sedimentation rates, rather than wind speed. Stage 3 can be divided into an older part (>45,000 cal yr B.P.) with a relatively stable landscape and moist climate and a younger part with more frequent climate change and decreasing landscape stability.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Earth-Surface Processes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)