Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America

Pavel Flegontov, N. Ezgi Altınışık, Piya Changmai, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Nicole Adamski, Deborah A. Bolnick, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Brendan J. Culleton, Olga Flegontova, T. Max Friesen, Choongwon Jeong, Thomas K. Harper, Denise Keating, Douglas J. Kennett, Alexander M. Kim, Thiseas C. Lamnidis, Ann Marie Lawson, Iñigo OlaldeJonas Oppenheimer, Ben A. Potter, Jennifer Raff, Robert A. Sattler, Pontus Skoglund, Kristin Stewardson, Edward J. Vajda, Sergey Vasilyev, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Dennis H. O’Rourke, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Stephan Schiffels

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Abstract

Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup’ik1–3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup’ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4–6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan Iñupiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7–9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo–Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-240
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume570
Issue number7760
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 13 2019

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Inuits
North America
Siberia
North American Indians
Haplotypes
Population
Language
Alleles
Genome

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Cite this

Flegontov, P., Altınışık, N. E., Changmai, P., Rohland, N., Mallick, S., Adamski, N., ... Schiffels, S. (2019). Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America. Nature, 570(7760), 236-240. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1251-y
Flegontov, Pavel ; Altınışık, N. Ezgi ; Changmai, Piya ; Rohland, Nadin ; Mallick, Swapan ; Adamski, Nicole ; Bolnick, Deborah A. ; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen ; Candilio, Francesca ; Culleton, Brendan J. ; Flegontova, Olga ; Friesen, T. Max ; Jeong, Choongwon ; Harper, Thomas K. ; Keating, Denise ; Kennett, Douglas J. ; Kim, Alexander M. ; Lamnidis, Thiseas C. ; Lawson, Ann Marie ; Olalde, Iñigo ; Oppenheimer, Jonas ; Potter, Ben A. ; Raff, Jennifer ; Sattler, Robert A. ; Skoglund, Pontus ; Stewardson, Kristin ; Vajda, Edward J. ; Vasilyev, Sergey ; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta ; Hayes, M. Geoffrey ; O’Rourke, Dennis H. ; Krause, Johannes ; Pinhasi, Ron ; Reich, David ; Schiffels, Stephan. / Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America. In: Nature. 2019 ; Vol. 570, No. 7760. pp. 236-240.
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abstract = "Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup’ik1–3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup’ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4–6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan I{\~n}upiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7–9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo–Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.",
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Flegontov, P, Altınışık, NE, Changmai, P, Rohland, N, Mallick, S, Adamski, N, Bolnick, DA, Broomandkhoshbacht, N, Candilio, F, Culleton, BJ, Flegontova, O, Friesen, TM, Jeong, C, Harper, TK, Keating, D, Kennett, DJ, Kim, AM, Lamnidis, TC, Lawson, AM, Olalde, I, Oppenheimer, J, Potter, BA, Raff, J, Sattler, RA, Skoglund, P, Stewardson, K, Vajda, EJ, Vasilyev, S, Veselovskaya, E, Hayes, MG, O’Rourke, DH, Krause, J, Pinhasi, R, Reich, D & Schiffels, S 2019, 'Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America', Nature, vol. 570, no. 7760, pp. 236-240. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1251-y

Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America. / Flegontov, Pavel; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Changmai, Piya; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Adamski, Nicole; Bolnick, Deborah A.; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Culleton, Brendan J.; Flegontova, Olga; Friesen, T. Max; Jeong, Choongwon; Harper, Thomas K.; Keating, Denise; Kennett, Douglas J.; Kim, Alexander M.; Lamnidis, Thiseas C.; Lawson, Ann Marie; Olalde, Iñigo; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Sattler, Robert A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Stewardson, Kristin; Vajda, Edward J.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; O’Rourke, Dennis H.; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David; Schiffels, Stephan.

In: Nature, Vol. 570, No. 7760, 13.06.2019, p. 236-240.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

TY - JOUR

T1 - Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America

AU - Flegontov, Pavel

AU - Altınışık, N. Ezgi

AU - Changmai, Piya

AU - Rohland, Nadin

AU - Mallick, Swapan

AU - Adamski, Nicole

AU - Bolnick, Deborah A.

AU - Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen

AU - Candilio, Francesca

AU - Culleton, Brendan J.

AU - Flegontova, Olga

AU - Friesen, T. Max

AU - Jeong, Choongwon

AU - Harper, Thomas K.

AU - Keating, Denise

AU - Kennett, Douglas J.

AU - Kim, Alexander M.

AU - Lamnidis, Thiseas C.

AU - Lawson, Ann Marie

AU - Olalde, Iñigo

AU - Oppenheimer, Jonas

AU - Potter, Ben A.

AU - Raff, Jennifer

AU - Sattler, Robert A.

AU - Skoglund, Pontus

AU - Stewardson, Kristin

AU - Vajda, Edward J.

AU - Vasilyev, Sergey

AU - Veselovskaya, Elizaveta

AU - Hayes, M. Geoffrey

AU - O’Rourke, Dennis H.

AU - Krause, Johannes

AU - Pinhasi, Ron

AU - Reich, David

AU - Schiffels, Stephan

PY - 2019/6/13

Y1 - 2019/6/13

N2 - Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup’ik1–3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup’ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4–6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan Iñupiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7–9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo–Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.

AB - Much of the American Arctic was first settled 5,000 years ago, by groups of people known as Palaeo-Eskimos. They were subsequently joined and largely displaced around 1,000 years ago by ancestors of the present-day Inuit and Yup’ik1–3. The genetic relationship between Palaeo-Eskimos and Native American, Inuit, Yup’ik and Aleut populations remains uncertain4–6. Here we present genomic data for 48 ancient individuals from Chukotka, East Siberia, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and the Canadian Arctic. We co-analyse these data with data from present-day Alaskan Iñupiat and West Siberian populations and published genomes. Using methods based on rare-allele and haplotype sharing, as well as established techniques4,7–9, we show that Palaeo-Eskimo-related ancestry is ubiquitous among people who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo–Aleut languages. We develop a comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America, and show that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.

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Flegontov P, Altınışık NE, Changmai P, Rohland N, Mallick S, Adamski N et al. Palaeo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America. Nature. 2019 Jun 13;570(7760):236-240. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1251-y