Panchromatic study of GRB 060124: From precursor to afterglow

P. Romano, S. Campana, G. Chincarini, J. Cummings, G. Cusumano, S. T. Holland, V. Mangano, T. Mineo, K. L. Page, V. Pal'shin, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, B. Zhang, R. Aptekar, S. Barbier, S. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, P. Boyd, David Nelson Burrows, M. CapalbiE. E. Fenimore, D. Frederiks, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. R. Goad, O. Godet, S. Golenetskii, D. Guetta, Jamie A. Kennea, V. La Parola, D. Malesani, F. Marshal, A. Moretti, John Andrew Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, M. Perri, G. Tagliaferri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present observations of GRB 060124, the first event for which both the prompt and the afterglow emission could be observed simultaneously and in their entirety by the three Swift instruments. Indeed, Swift-BAT triggered on a precursor ∼570 s before the main burst peak, and this allowed Swift to repoint the narrow field instruments to the burst position ∼350 s before the main burst occurred. GRB 060124 also triggered Konus-Wind, which observed the prompt emission in a harder gamma-ray band (up to 2 MeV). Thanks to these exceptional circumstances, the temporal and spectral properties of the prompt emission can be studied in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray ranges. While the X-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) clearly tracks the gamma-ray burst, the optical component follows a different pattern, likely indicating a different origin, possibly the onset of external shocks. The prompt GRB spectrum shows significant spectral evolution, with both the peak energy and the spectral index varying. As observed in several long GRBs, significant lags are measured between the hard- and low-energy components, showing that this behaviour extends over 3 decades in energy. The GRB peaks are also much broader at soft energies. This is related to the temporal evolution of the spectrum, and can be accounted for by assuming that the electron spectral index softened with time. The burst energy (Eiso ∼ 5 × 1053 erg) and average peak energy (E p ∼ 300 keV) make GRB 060124 consistent with the Amati relation. The X-ray afterglow is characterized by a decay which presents a break at t b ∼ 105 s.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-927
Number of pages11
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume456
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2006

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afterglows
bursts
energy
gamma rays
x rays
temporal evolution
gamma ray bursts
erg
time lag
shock
electron
decay
electrons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Romano, P., Campana, S., Chincarini, G., Cummings, J., Cusumano, G., Holland, S. T., ... Tagliaferri, G. (2006). Panchromatic study of GRB 060124: From precursor to afterglow. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 456(3), 917-927. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065071
Romano, P. ; Campana, S. ; Chincarini, G. ; Cummings, J. ; Cusumano, G. ; Holland, S. T. ; Mangano, V. ; Mineo, T. ; Page, K. L. ; Pal'shin, V. ; Rol, E. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Zhang, B. ; Aptekar, R. ; Barbier, S. ; Barthelmy, S. ; Beardmore, A. P. ; Boyd, P. ; Burrows, David Nelson ; Capalbi, M. ; Fenimore, E. E. ; Frederiks, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Giommi, P. ; Goad, M. R. ; Godet, O. ; Golenetskii, S. ; Guetta, D. ; Kennea, Jamie A. ; La Parola, V. ; Malesani, D. ; Marshal, F. ; Moretti, A. ; Nousek, John Andrew ; O'Brien, P. T. ; Osborne, J. P. ; Perri, M. ; Tagliaferri, G. / Panchromatic study of GRB 060124 : From precursor to afterglow. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2006 ; Vol. 456, No. 3. pp. 917-927.
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abstract = "We present observations of GRB 060124, the first event for which both the prompt and the afterglow emission could be observed simultaneously and in their entirety by the three Swift instruments. Indeed, Swift-BAT triggered on a precursor ∼570 s before the main burst peak, and this allowed Swift to repoint the narrow field instruments to the burst position ∼350 s before the main burst occurred. GRB 060124 also triggered Konus-Wind, which observed the prompt emission in a harder gamma-ray band (up to 2 MeV). Thanks to these exceptional circumstances, the temporal and spectral properties of the prompt emission can be studied in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray ranges. While the X-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) clearly tracks the gamma-ray burst, the optical component follows a different pattern, likely indicating a different origin, possibly the onset of external shocks. The prompt GRB spectrum shows significant spectral evolution, with both the peak energy and the spectral index varying. As observed in several long GRBs, significant lags are measured between the hard- and low-energy components, showing that this behaviour extends over 3 decades in energy. The GRB peaks are also much broader at soft energies. This is related to the temporal evolution of the spectrum, and can be accounted for by assuming that the electron spectral index softened with time. The burst energy (Eiso ∼ 5 × 1053 erg) and average peak energy (E p ∼ 300 keV) make GRB 060124 consistent with the Amati relation. The X-ray afterglow is characterized by a decay which presents a break at t b ∼ 105 s.",
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Romano, P, Campana, S, Chincarini, G, Cummings, J, Cusumano, G, Holland, ST, Mangano, V, Mineo, T, Page, KL, Pal'shin, V, Rol, E, Sakamoto, T, Zhang, B, Aptekar, R, Barbier, S, Barthelmy, S, Beardmore, AP, Boyd, P, Burrows, DN, Capalbi, M, Fenimore, EE, Frederiks, D, Gehrels, N, Giommi, P, Goad, MR, Godet, O, Golenetskii, S, Guetta, D, Kennea, JA, La Parola, V, Malesani, D, Marshal, F, Moretti, A, Nousek, JA, O'Brien, PT, Osborne, JP, Perri, M & Tagliaferri, G 2006, 'Panchromatic study of GRB 060124: From precursor to afterglow', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 456, no. 3, pp. 917-927. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065071

Panchromatic study of GRB 060124 : From precursor to afterglow. / Romano, P.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Cummings, J.; Cusumano, G.; Holland, S. T.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Page, K. L.; Pal'shin, V.; Rol, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Zhang, B.; Aptekar, R.; Barbier, S.; Barthelmy, S.; Beardmore, A. P.; Boyd, P.; Burrows, David Nelson; Capalbi, M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Frederiks, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Goad, M. R.; Godet, O.; Golenetskii, S.; Guetta, D.; Kennea, Jamie A.; La Parola, V.; Malesani, D.; Marshal, F.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, John Andrew; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Perri, M.; Tagliaferri, G.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 456, No. 3, 01.09.2006, p. 917-927.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Panchromatic study of GRB 060124

T2 - From precursor to afterglow

AU - Romano, P.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - Cummings, J.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - Holland, S. T.

AU - Mangano, V.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Page, K. L.

AU - Pal'shin, V.

AU - Rol, E.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Zhang, B.

AU - Aptekar, R.

AU - Barbier, S.

AU - Barthelmy, S.

AU - Beardmore, A. P.

AU - Boyd, P.

AU - Burrows, David Nelson

AU - Capalbi, M.

AU - Fenimore, E. E.

AU - Frederiks, D.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Goad, M. R.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Golenetskii, S.

AU - Guetta, D.

AU - Kennea, Jamie A.

AU - La Parola, V.

AU - Malesani, D.

AU - Marshal, F.

AU - Moretti, A.

AU - Nousek, John Andrew

AU - O'Brien, P. T.

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Perri, M.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

PY - 2006/9/1

Y1 - 2006/9/1

N2 - We present observations of GRB 060124, the first event for which both the prompt and the afterglow emission could be observed simultaneously and in their entirety by the three Swift instruments. Indeed, Swift-BAT triggered on a precursor ∼570 s before the main burst peak, and this allowed Swift to repoint the narrow field instruments to the burst position ∼350 s before the main burst occurred. GRB 060124 also triggered Konus-Wind, which observed the prompt emission in a harder gamma-ray band (up to 2 MeV). Thanks to these exceptional circumstances, the temporal and spectral properties of the prompt emission can be studied in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray ranges. While the X-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) clearly tracks the gamma-ray burst, the optical component follows a different pattern, likely indicating a different origin, possibly the onset of external shocks. The prompt GRB spectrum shows significant spectral evolution, with both the peak energy and the spectral index varying. As observed in several long GRBs, significant lags are measured between the hard- and low-energy components, showing that this behaviour extends over 3 decades in energy. The GRB peaks are also much broader at soft energies. This is related to the temporal evolution of the spectrum, and can be accounted for by assuming that the electron spectral index softened with time. The burst energy (Eiso ∼ 5 × 1053 erg) and average peak energy (E p ∼ 300 keV) make GRB 060124 consistent with the Amati relation. The X-ray afterglow is characterized by a decay which presents a break at t b ∼ 105 s.

AB - We present observations of GRB 060124, the first event for which both the prompt and the afterglow emission could be observed simultaneously and in their entirety by the three Swift instruments. Indeed, Swift-BAT triggered on a precursor ∼570 s before the main burst peak, and this allowed Swift to repoint the narrow field instruments to the burst position ∼350 s before the main burst occurred. GRB 060124 also triggered Konus-Wind, which observed the prompt emission in a harder gamma-ray band (up to 2 MeV). Thanks to these exceptional circumstances, the temporal and spectral properties of the prompt emission can be studied in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray ranges. While the X-ray emission (0.2-10 keV) clearly tracks the gamma-ray burst, the optical component follows a different pattern, likely indicating a different origin, possibly the onset of external shocks. The prompt GRB spectrum shows significant spectral evolution, with both the peak energy and the spectral index varying. As observed in several long GRBs, significant lags are measured between the hard- and low-energy components, showing that this behaviour extends over 3 decades in energy. The GRB peaks are also much broader at soft energies. This is related to the temporal evolution of the spectrum, and can be accounted for by assuming that the electron spectral index softened with time. The burst energy (Eiso ∼ 5 × 1053 erg) and average peak energy (E p ∼ 300 keV) make GRB 060124 consistent with the Amati relation. The X-ray afterglow is characterized by a decay which presents a break at t b ∼ 105 s.

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Romano P, Campana S, Chincarini G, Cummings J, Cusumano G, Holland ST et al. Panchromatic study of GRB 060124: From precursor to afterglow. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2006 Sep 1;456(3):917-927. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065071