We employ a full reciprocal diallel design between 10 parental plants that differed in their strength of self-incompatibility (SI; strong, intermediate, and weak) to examine parental effects on seed set and 10 components of fitness of progeny performance in Campanula rapunculoides. We perform ANOVAs to separate the influence of the strength of SI and the identity of the maternal and paternal parent on family performance. We calculate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between traits to determine potentially evolutionary constraints. Finally, we employ maximum likelihood methods to estimate the components of quantitative genetic variance, as defined by Cockerham and Weir in their BioModel c. Our most significant finding is that weak SI plants have high outcrossed seed set as maternal parents. We argue that direct or pleiotropic effects of modifiers of SI probably cause this. Second, we find that extra-nuclear interactions, as defined by the BioModel, have strong effects on seed set and several vegetative and flowering traits. These findings indicate that some maternal plants selectively provision seeds sired by specific paternal donors and that some of this variation appears to be associated with modifiers of the strength of SI. We find other sources of significant quantitative genetic variation for all of the traits we examine and discuss the possible role these play in the evolution of the reproductive system. Taken together, our findings show that variation in the strength of SI may influence levels of quantitative genetic variation that, in turn, can influence the reproductive success of individuals in C. rapunculoides.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics