Parental socialization of emotion expression: Gender differences and relations to child adjustment

Tara M. Chaplin, Pamela M. Cole, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

279 Scopus citations

Abstract

The present study examined gender differences in children's submissive and disharmonious emotions and parental attention to these emotions. Sixty children and their mothers and fathers participated when children were 4 and 6 years old. Children's emotion expression and parental responses during a game were coded. Girls expressed more submissive emotion than boys. Fathers attended more to girls' submissive emotion than to boys' at preschool age. Fathers attended more to boys' disharmonious emotion than to girls' at early school age. Parental attention at preschool age predicted later submissive expression level. Child disharmonious emotion predicted later externalizing symptoms. Gender differences in these emotions may occur as early as preschool age and may be subject to differential responding, particularly by fathers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-88
Number of pages9
JournalEmotion
Volume5
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

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