Parenting and cognitive and psychomotor delay due to small-for-gestational-age birth

Xiuhong Li, Rina D. Eiden, Leonard H. Epstein, Edmond D. Shenassa, Chuanbo Xie, Xiaozhong Wen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: To examine whether different dimensions of parenting at different ages help small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children ‘catch-up’ the normal children in cognition and psychomotor. Methods: We analyzed data of 800 children born SGA and 3,000 children born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort. The Two Bag Task was used to measure 2-year or 4-year parenting dimensions. Children's reading, math, gross motor, and fine motor scores were assessed at 5 years. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to test the interactions between SGA and 2-year or 4-year parenting dimensions on 5-year cognitive and psychomotor outcomes (dependent variables). Results: There were significant interactions between SGA and early parenting on 5-year reading, math, and fine motor scores. The gap between SGA and AGA children in 5-year fine motor score was attenuated to null [−0.25 (95% confidence interval, −0.41, −0.09) vs. 0.03 (−0.13, 0.20)] when 2-year parental sensitivity score increased from 1 standard deviation (SD) below mean (Mean − SD) to 1 SD above mean (Mean + SD). The gap between SGA and AGA children in 5-year fine motor [−0.28 (−0.44, −0.13) vs. 0.06 (−0.09, 0.22)] and math [−1.32 (−2.27, −0.37) vs. 0.20 (−0.77, 1.17)] scores was also attenuated to null when 4-year parental emotional support score increased from Mean − SD to Mean + SD. In contrast, the gap between SGA and AGA children in 5-year reading score increased from 0.49 (−0.90, 1.88) to −1.31 (−2.55, −0.07) when 4-year parental intrusiveness score increased from Mean − SD to Mean + SD. Similarly, the gap between SGA and AGA children in fine motor score increased with 4-year parental negative regard from 0.02 (−0.14, 0.18) to −0.23 (−0.38, −0.08). Conclusions: Early high-quality parenting may buffer some adversity in long-term reading, math, and fine motor skills related to SGA birth, whereas low-quality parenting can amplify the adversity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-179
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines
Volume58
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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