Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage: Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment

A. K. Brown, R. A. Brennan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Although passive treatment wetlands offer a low cost alternative for treating acid mine drainage (AMD), recent guidelines from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection indicate that they often fail when treating "high risk" AMD, containing net acidity and high metal loading, due to clogging with metal precipitate. Traditionally, spent mushroom compost (SMC) is the chosen substrate in these systems; however, recent laboratory and field studies indicate that the sustainable waste product, crab shell chitin, is highly effective at increasing pH, providing alkalinity and nutrients, maintaining reducing conditions, and inducing metals removal through precipitation and biosorption. In side-by-side field trials treating moderately strong AMD, crab shell chitin has not clogged with yellow boy (ferric hydroxide, (Fe(OH) 3), while other substrates have. This study evaluated the performance of crab shell chitin for treating "high risk" water both on its own, and as a lower cost fractional amendment to SMC. Five substrate mixtures ranging from 10% to 100% chitin (with the balance SMC) were compared to the traditional vertical flow wetland (VFW) substrate (90% SMC/10% limestone) in laboratory microcosms containing AMD collected from a "high risk"mine discharge. Over fifty days, microcosms containing greater than 30% chitin outperformed microcosms containing traditional VFW substrate in increasing pH, adding alkalinity, and removing acidity. Metal removal was also strongly correlated with the substrate's chitin content, with higher percentages giving more rapid and complete remediation. Based on these data, substrate ratios containing <30% chitin are not recommended for "high risk" water. All other tested ratios perform equal to or better than the traditional SMC and limestone, regarding alkalinity addition and metals removal. Continuous flow column studies (in progress) will further evaluate chitin amendments greater than 30% for treating "high risk" water in an attempt to estimate the longevity and cost of this promising substrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationJoint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.
Pages54-69
Number of pages16
StatePublished - Dec 1 2010
EventJoint Mining Reclamation Conference 2010 - 27th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Annual Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Annual Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf. - Pittsburgh, PA, United States
Duration: Jun 5 2010Jun 11 2010

Publication series

NameJoint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.
Volume1

Other

OtherJoint Mining Reclamation Conference 2010 - 27th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Annual Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Annual Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.
CountryUnited States
CityPittsburgh, PA
Period6/5/106/11/10

Fingerprint

Chitin
chitin
acid mine drainage
Remediation
microcosm
Drainage
crab
remediation
shell
mushroom
substrate
Acids
compost
Substrates
Metals
Wetlands
Alkalinity
metal
alkalinity
Calcium Carbonate

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Cite this

Brown, A. K., & Brennan, R. A. (2010). Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage: Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment. In Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf. (pp. 54-69). (Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.; Vol. 1).
Brown, A. K. ; Brennan, R. A. / Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage : Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment. Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.. 2010. pp. 54-69 (Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.).
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title = "Passive remediation of {"}High risk{"} acid mine drainage: Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment",
abstract = "Although passive treatment wetlands offer a low cost alternative for treating acid mine drainage (AMD), recent guidelines from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection indicate that they often fail when treating {"}high risk{"} AMD, containing net acidity and high metal loading, due to clogging with metal precipitate. Traditionally, spent mushroom compost (SMC) is the chosen substrate in these systems; however, recent laboratory and field studies indicate that the sustainable waste product, crab shell chitin, is highly effective at increasing pH, providing alkalinity and nutrients, maintaining reducing conditions, and inducing metals removal through precipitation and biosorption. In side-by-side field trials treating moderately strong AMD, crab shell chitin has not clogged with yellow boy (ferric hydroxide, (Fe(OH) 3), while other substrates have. This study evaluated the performance of crab shell chitin for treating {"}high risk{"} water both on its own, and as a lower cost fractional amendment to SMC. Five substrate mixtures ranging from 10{\%} to 100{\%} chitin (with the balance SMC) were compared to the traditional vertical flow wetland (VFW) substrate (90{\%} SMC/10{\%} limestone) in laboratory microcosms containing AMD collected from a {"}high risk{"}mine discharge. Over fifty days, microcosms containing greater than 30{\%} chitin outperformed microcosms containing traditional VFW substrate in increasing pH, adding alkalinity, and removing acidity. Metal removal was also strongly correlated with the substrate's chitin content, with higher percentages giving more rapid and complete remediation. Based on these data, substrate ratios containing <30{\%} chitin are not recommended for {"}high risk{"} water. All other tested ratios perform equal to or better than the traditional SMC and limestone, regarding alkalinity addition and metals removal. Continuous flow column studies (in progress) will further evaluate chitin amendments greater than 30{\%} for treating {"}high risk{"} water in an attempt to estimate the longevity and cost of this promising substrate.",
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Brown, AK & Brennan, RA 2010, Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage: Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment. in Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.. Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf., vol. 1, pp. 54-69, Joint Mining Reclamation Conference 2010 - 27th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Annual Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Annual Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf., Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 6/5/10.

Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage : Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment. / Brown, A. K.; Brennan, R. A.

Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.. 2010. p. 54-69 (Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.; Vol. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Brennan, R. A.

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N2 - Although passive treatment wetlands offer a low cost alternative for treating acid mine drainage (AMD), recent guidelines from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection indicate that they often fail when treating "high risk" AMD, containing net acidity and high metal loading, due to clogging with metal precipitate. Traditionally, spent mushroom compost (SMC) is the chosen substrate in these systems; however, recent laboratory and field studies indicate that the sustainable waste product, crab shell chitin, is highly effective at increasing pH, providing alkalinity and nutrients, maintaining reducing conditions, and inducing metals removal through precipitation and biosorption. In side-by-side field trials treating moderately strong AMD, crab shell chitin has not clogged with yellow boy (ferric hydroxide, (Fe(OH) 3), while other substrates have. This study evaluated the performance of crab shell chitin for treating "high risk" water both on its own, and as a lower cost fractional amendment to SMC. Five substrate mixtures ranging from 10% to 100% chitin (with the balance SMC) were compared to the traditional vertical flow wetland (VFW) substrate (90% SMC/10% limestone) in laboratory microcosms containing AMD collected from a "high risk"mine discharge. Over fifty days, microcosms containing greater than 30% chitin outperformed microcosms containing traditional VFW substrate in increasing pH, adding alkalinity, and removing acidity. Metal removal was also strongly correlated with the substrate's chitin content, with higher percentages giving more rapid and complete remediation. Based on these data, substrate ratios containing <30% chitin are not recommended for "high risk" water. All other tested ratios perform equal to or better than the traditional SMC and limestone, regarding alkalinity addition and metals removal. Continuous flow column studies (in progress) will further evaluate chitin amendments greater than 30% for treating "high risk" water in an attempt to estimate the longevity and cost of this promising substrate.

AB - Although passive treatment wetlands offer a low cost alternative for treating acid mine drainage (AMD), recent guidelines from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection indicate that they often fail when treating "high risk" AMD, containing net acidity and high metal loading, due to clogging with metal precipitate. Traditionally, spent mushroom compost (SMC) is the chosen substrate in these systems; however, recent laboratory and field studies indicate that the sustainable waste product, crab shell chitin, is highly effective at increasing pH, providing alkalinity and nutrients, maintaining reducing conditions, and inducing metals removal through precipitation and biosorption. In side-by-side field trials treating moderately strong AMD, crab shell chitin has not clogged with yellow boy (ferric hydroxide, (Fe(OH) 3), while other substrates have. This study evaluated the performance of crab shell chitin for treating "high risk" water both on its own, and as a lower cost fractional amendment to SMC. Five substrate mixtures ranging from 10% to 100% chitin (with the balance SMC) were compared to the traditional vertical flow wetland (VFW) substrate (90% SMC/10% limestone) in laboratory microcosms containing AMD collected from a "high risk"mine discharge. Over fifty days, microcosms containing greater than 30% chitin outperformed microcosms containing traditional VFW substrate in increasing pH, adding alkalinity, and removing acidity. Metal removal was also strongly correlated with the substrate's chitin content, with higher percentages giving more rapid and complete remediation. Based on these data, substrate ratios containing <30% chitin are not recommended for "high risk" water. All other tested ratios perform equal to or better than the traditional SMC and limestone, regarding alkalinity addition and metals removal. Continuous flow column studies (in progress) will further evaluate chitin amendments greater than 30% for treating "high risk" water in an attempt to estimate the longevity and cost of this promising substrate.

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M3 - Conference contribution

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Brown AK, Brennan RA. Passive remediation of "High risk" acid mine drainage: Microcosm studies using crab-shell chitin as a fractional substrate amendment. In Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.. 2010. p. 54-69. (Joint Mining Reclamation Conf. 2010 - 27th Meeting of the ASMR, 12th Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Reclamation Conf. and 4th Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative Mined Land Reforestation Conf.).