Empirical analyses of multinationals from emerging economies (EMNCs) have been a challenge because of the absence of systematic and consistent data. This study focuses on the impacts of patent examiner added citations on citation-based measures of EMNC subsidiary knowledge inflows. The US patents of leading innovation-oriented EMNCs from China and India between 2002 and 2014 are analyzed, with their major competitors from mature industrialized countries as a benchmark group. We find that, subsidiary knowledge inflow variables in the current study are not significantly distorted by examiner added citations. This study offers the validity evidence of employing the US patent and citation data in studying EMNCs. The results also contribute to patent economics literature in general by testing the impacts of examiner added citations on citation-based measures of knowledge flows.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Business and International Management
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Political Science and International Relations