Pathway to the Papanicolaou smear: The development of cervical cytology in twentieth-century America and implications in the present day

Alexa L. Swailes, Carrie Hossler, Joshua Kesterson

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

Abstract

George Papanicolaou, a Greek immigrant and cytopathologist, was responsible for what is now colloquially known as the “Pap smear”—undoubtedly one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health of the last century. However, his landmark research on the development of cervical cytology for the detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix (“New Cancer Diagnosis,” 1928) made a rather inauspicious debut in an unlikely venue: John Harvey Kellogg's Third Race Betterment Conference—a meeting devoted to the furtherance of the concept and implementation of eugenics. Herein, we discuss the stark juxtaposition of Papanicolaou's landmark discovery amid the pseudoscience of the third Race Betterment Conference. We discuss the latency of Papnicolaou's discovery–its potential implications unrealized–until co-publication with Herbert Traut, which catapulted Papanicolaou's research to the scientific foreground. This gave rise to public health initiatives aimed at establishing the Pap smear as a screening tool. We further delineate the progress made in recent decades with the identification of HPV as the etiological agent for cervical cancer, and the subsequent development of the HPV vaccine, and discuss ongoing research in the present day. In this way, we hope to provide a background and historical context for the development of the Pap smear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-7
Number of pages5
JournalGynecologic Oncology
Volume154
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Fingerprint

Papanicolaou Test
Cell Biology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Public Health
Research
Eugenics
Papillomavirus Vaccines
Publications
Medicine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

@article{0999380fc3b4405a93bd549c2810f2bd,
title = "Pathway to the Papanicolaou smear: The development of cervical cytology in twentieth-century America and implications in the present day",
abstract = "George Papanicolaou, a Greek immigrant and cytopathologist, was responsible for what is now colloquially known as the “Pap smear”—undoubtedly one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health of the last century. However, his landmark research on the development of cervical cytology for the detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix (“New Cancer Diagnosis,” 1928) made a rather inauspicious debut in an unlikely venue: John Harvey Kellogg's Third Race Betterment Conference—a meeting devoted to the furtherance of the concept and implementation of eugenics. Herein, we discuss the stark juxtaposition of Papanicolaou's landmark discovery amid the pseudoscience of the third Race Betterment Conference. We discuss the latency of Papnicolaou's discovery–its potential implications unrealized–until co-publication with Herbert Traut, which catapulted Papanicolaou's research to the scientific foreground. This gave rise to public health initiatives aimed at establishing the Pap smear as a screening tool. We further delineate the progress made in recent decades with the identification of HPV as the etiological agent for cervical cancer, and the subsequent development of the HPV vaccine, and discuss ongoing research in the present day. In this way, we hope to provide a background and historical context for the development of the Pap smear.",
author = "Swailes, {Alexa L.} and Carrie Hossler and Joshua Kesterson",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.04.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "154",
pages = "3--7",
journal = "Gynecologic Oncology",
issn = "0090-8258",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pathway to the Papanicolaou smear

T2 - The development of cervical cytology in twentieth-century America and implications in the present day

AU - Swailes, Alexa L.

AU - Hossler, Carrie

AU - Kesterson, Joshua

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - George Papanicolaou, a Greek immigrant and cytopathologist, was responsible for what is now colloquially known as the “Pap smear”—undoubtedly one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health of the last century. However, his landmark research on the development of cervical cytology for the detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix (“New Cancer Diagnosis,” 1928) made a rather inauspicious debut in an unlikely venue: John Harvey Kellogg's Third Race Betterment Conference—a meeting devoted to the furtherance of the concept and implementation of eugenics. Herein, we discuss the stark juxtaposition of Papanicolaou's landmark discovery amid the pseudoscience of the third Race Betterment Conference. We discuss the latency of Papnicolaou's discovery–its potential implications unrealized–until co-publication with Herbert Traut, which catapulted Papanicolaou's research to the scientific foreground. This gave rise to public health initiatives aimed at establishing the Pap smear as a screening tool. We further delineate the progress made in recent decades with the identification of HPV as the etiological agent for cervical cancer, and the subsequent development of the HPV vaccine, and discuss ongoing research in the present day. In this way, we hope to provide a background and historical context for the development of the Pap smear.

AB - George Papanicolaou, a Greek immigrant and cytopathologist, was responsible for what is now colloquially known as the “Pap smear”—undoubtedly one of the greatest advances in medicine and public health of the last century. However, his landmark research on the development of cervical cytology for the detection of precancerous lesions of the cervix (“New Cancer Diagnosis,” 1928) made a rather inauspicious debut in an unlikely venue: John Harvey Kellogg's Third Race Betterment Conference—a meeting devoted to the furtherance of the concept and implementation of eugenics. Herein, we discuss the stark juxtaposition of Papanicolaou's landmark discovery amid the pseudoscience of the third Race Betterment Conference. We discuss the latency of Papnicolaou's discovery–its potential implications unrealized–until co-publication with Herbert Traut, which catapulted Papanicolaou's research to the scientific foreground. This gave rise to public health initiatives aimed at establishing the Pap smear as a screening tool. We further delineate the progress made in recent decades with the identification of HPV as the etiological agent for cervical cancer, and the subsequent development of the HPV vaccine, and discuss ongoing research in the present day. In this way, we hope to provide a background and historical context for the development of the Pap smear.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064227861&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064227861&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.04.004

DO - 10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.04.004

M3 - Short survey

C2 - 30995961

AN - SCOPUS:85064227861

VL - 154

SP - 3

EP - 7

JO - Gynecologic Oncology

JF - Gynecologic Oncology

SN - 0090-8258

IS - 1

ER -