Pb loss in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics observed by in situ ionic conductivity measurements

Niall J. Donnelly, Clive A. Randall

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Analysis of the impedance spectra of Nb-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) embedded capacitors revealed that the ionic conductivity increased monotonically during annealing at 700 °C. Furthermore, the rate of increase was lowered by a reduction in the ambient pO2. The results could be explained by a model in which oxygen vacancies are generated as a consequence of Pb evaporation from the PZT. At 700 °C, this process is most likely limited by surface kinetics rather than Pb bulk diffusion. It was shown that the Pb loss could be completely recovered by annealing in a high activity Pb source with a commensurate reduction in oxygen vacancy concentration. The electronic conductivity was predominantly p-type and was relatively unaffected by the Pb loss throughout the course of the experiment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number104107
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 15 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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