Introduction: Smoking cigarettes under the influence of alcohol or cannabis is associated with perceived pleasure. However, it is unclear whether these changes in perceived reward impact the extent of concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis. The current study investigated if self-reported changes in perceived reward from concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis are related to the extent of concurrent use in real-world contexts using a smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study. Methods: The sample included 126 diverse young adult smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area who reported current alcohol or cannabis use at baseline (M = 22.8 years, 50.8% male, 40.5% sexual minority, 39.7% Non-Hispanic White). Participants completed an online baseline survey and 30 days of smartphone-based daily EMA surveys of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use. The baseline assessed self-reported changes in perceived pleasure of smoking cigarettes while using alcohol or cannabis separately. EMA surveys included detailed questions about concurrent use (i.e., the extent of smoking while using another substance) covering the previous day. A total of 2,600 daily assessments were analyzed using mixed models. Results: Higher perceived pleasure from smoking cigarettes while drinking alcohol or using cannabis at baseline were both associated with a greater extent of concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol (b = 0.140; SE = 0.066; t = 2.1; p = .035) and cannabis (b = 0.136; SE = 0.058; t = 2.4; p = .019) on a given day. Conclusions: Results suggest that perceived reward from concurrently using cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis is associated with the extent of concurrent use. Findings can inform tailored smoking cessation interventions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health