The perchlorate uptake of hydrotalcite- and hydrocalumite-type layered double hydroxides (LDHs), and surfactant modified clay minerals were compared. Perchlorate uptake by both hydrotalcite- and hydrocalumite-type LDHs was in the range of 0.011 to 0.197 meq/g from a 2 mM perchlorate solution. The nitrate form of Mg:Al LDH had the highest uptake of 0.197 ± 0.033 meq/g, and the carbonate form of LDH the lowest uptake of 0.011 ± 0.003 meq/g. Octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA), Dodecyltrimethylammonium (DoDTMA), and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) clay minerals removed perchlorate in the range of 0.025 to 0.348 meq/g from a 2 mM perchlorate solution. Synthetic HDTMA (5.0 CEC) Na-1-mica exhibited the highest adsorption of perchlorate with 0.348 ± 0.011 meq/g, while DoDTMA montmorillonite had the lowest adsorption with 0.025 ± 0.009 meq/g. Tested under the same conditions, a surfactant modified carbon showed an uptake of 0.303 ± 0.005 meq/g and this carbon is currently being used for filtration of drinking water.Hydrophobic organo-clay minerals with larger interlayer distance resulted in higher perchlorate uptake by exchange/adsorption on the residual charge of the cationic surfactants. The uptake by LDH was by anion exchange on the surfaces and, for the nitrate form of hydrotalcite, also from the interlayer spaces. The mechanisms of uptake were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. This study indicated that cationic surfactant containing organo-clay minerals may be useful materials for the removal of perchlorate from water and could serve as alternatives to surfactant modified-activated carbons.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geochemistry and Petrology