Persistence of perchlorate and the relative numbers of perchlorate- and chlorate-respiring microorganisms in natural waters, soils, and wastewater

Jun Wu, Richard F. Unz, Husen Zhang, Bruce E. Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cell numbers of perchlorate (PRM)- and chlorate (CRM)-reducing microorganisms and the persistence of perchlorate were determined in samples of soils, natural waters, and wastewater incubated under laboratory conditions. Complete perchlorate reduction in raw wastewater and creek water was achieved in 4 to 7 days and 8 to 29 days, respectively, depending on the individual growth substrate (acetate, lactate, citric acid, or molasses) employed. Perchlorate persisted in most mixed cultures developed with 2 g of "pristine" soil, but declined in mixed cultures developed with 100 g of soil. Less than seven days were required to completely reduce perchlorate in cultures started with 10 g of a perchlorate-contaminated soil obtained from a site in Texas. The concentration of PRM was estimated using a 5-tube most probable number (MPN) procedure. To account for discrepancies due to differences in the total number of bacteria (per mass of sample) in the samples, difficulty in removing bacteria from soil samples, and the lack of an unequivocal method to measure total viable cells in these different systems, we normalized our MPN results on the basis of 106 or 109 total bacteria counted using acridine orange direct counts (AODC). There were more PRM in wastewater samples on a per-cell basis (15 to 350 PRM/106-AODC) than in water samples (0.02 to 0.4 PRM/106-AODC). There were also more PRM in soils from sites exhibiting direct evidence of perchlorate contamination (100 to 200 PRM/109-AODC) than from other sites (nondetectable to 0.77 PRM/109-AODC). These results demonstrate that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are present at perchlorate-contaminated sites, and that perchlorate can be degraded by these microorganisms through the addition of different electron donors, such as acetate and lactate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-130
Number of pages12
JournalBioremediation Journal
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2001

Fingerprint

perchlorate
persistence
microorganism
soil water
wastewater
bacterium
soil
acetate
citric acid
water
substrate
electron

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

@article{5f296dea964b4c0791a012afb922f69c,
title = "Persistence of perchlorate and the relative numbers of perchlorate- and chlorate-respiring microorganisms in natural waters, soils, and wastewater",
abstract = "Cell numbers of perchlorate (PRM)- and chlorate (CRM)-reducing microorganisms and the persistence of perchlorate were determined in samples of soils, natural waters, and wastewater incubated under laboratory conditions. Complete perchlorate reduction in raw wastewater and creek water was achieved in 4 to 7 days and 8 to 29 days, respectively, depending on the individual growth substrate (acetate, lactate, citric acid, or molasses) employed. Perchlorate persisted in most mixed cultures developed with 2 g of {"}pristine{"} soil, but declined in mixed cultures developed with 100 g of soil. Less than seven days were required to completely reduce perchlorate in cultures started with 10 g of a perchlorate-contaminated soil obtained from a site in Texas. The concentration of PRM was estimated using a 5-tube most probable number (MPN) procedure. To account for discrepancies due to differences in the total number of bacteria (per mass of sample) in the samples, difficulty in removing bacteria from soil samples, and the lack of an unequivocal method to measure total viable cells in these different systems, we normalized our MPN results on the basis of 106 or 109 total bacteria counted using acridine orange direct counts (AODC). There were more PRM in wastewater samples on a per-cell basis (15 to 350 PRM/106-AODC) than in water samples (0.02 to 0.4 PRM/106-AODC). There were also more PRM in soils from sites exhibiting direct evidence of perchlorate contamination (100 to 200 PRM/109-AODC) than from other sites (nondetectable to 0.77 PRM/109-AODC). These results demonstrate that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are present at perchlorate-contaminated sites, and that perchlorate can be degraded by these microorganisms through the addition of different electron donors, such as acetate and lactate.",
author = "Jun Wu and Unz, {Richard F.} and Husen Zhang and Logan, {Bruce E.}",
year = "2001",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/20018891079230",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
pages = "119--130",
journal = "Bioremediation Journal",
issn = "1088-9868",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

Persistence of perchlorate and the relative numbers of perchlorate- and chlorate-respiring microorganisms in natural waters, soils, and wastewater. / Wu, Jun; Unz, Richard F.; Zhang, Husen; Logan, Bruce E.

In: Bioremediation Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 01.12.2001, p. 119-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Persistence of perchlorate and the relative numbers of perchlorate- and chlorate-respiring microorganisms in natural waters, soils, and wastewater

AU - Wu, Jun

AU - Unz, Richard F.

AU - Zhang, Husen

AU - Logan, Bruce E.

PY - 2001/12/1

Y1 - 2001/12/1

N2 - Cell numbers of perchlorate (PRM)- and chlorate (CRM)-reducing microorganisms and the persistence of perchlorate were determined in samples of soils, natural waters, and wastewater incubated under laboratory conditions. Complete perchlorate reduction in raw wastewater and creek water was achieved in 4 to 7 days and 8 to 29 days, respectively, depending on the individual growth substrate (acetate, lactate, citric acid, or molasses) employed. Perchlorate persisted in most mixed cultures developed with 2 g of "pristine" soil, but declined in mixed cultures developed with 100 g of soil. Less than seven days were required to completely reduce perchlorate in cultures started with 10 g of a perchlorate-contaminated soil obtained from a site in Texas. The concentration of PRM was estimated using a 5-tube most probable number (MPN) procedure. To account for discrepancies due to differences in the total number of bacteria (per mass of sample) in the samples, difficulty in removing bacteria from soil samples, and the lack of an unequivocal method to measure total viable cells in these different systems, we normalized our MPN results on the basis of 106 or 109 total bacteria counted using acridine orange direct counts (AODC). There were more PRM in wastewater samples on a per-cell basis (15 to 350 PRM/106-AODC) than in water samples (0.02 to 0.4 PRM/106-AODC). There were also more PRM in soils from sites exhibiting direct evidence of perchlorate contamination (100 to 200 PRM/109-AODC) than from other sites (nondetectable to 0.77 PRM/109-AODC). These results demonstrate that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are present at perchlorate-contaminated sites, and that perchlorate can be degraded by these microorganisms through the addition of different electron donors, such as acetate and lactate.

AB - Cell numbers of perchlorate (PRM)- and chlorate (CRM)-reducing microorganisms and the persistence of perchlorate were determined in samples of soils, natural waters, and wastewater incubated under laboratory conditions. Complete perchlorate reduction in raw wastewater and creek water was achieved in 4 to 7 days and 8 to 29 days, respectively, depending on the individual growth substrate (acetate, lactate, citric acid, or molasses) employed. Perchlorate persisted in most mixed cultures developed with 2 g of "pristine" soil, but declined in mixed cultures developed with 100 g of soil. Less than seven days were required to completely reduce perchlorate in cultures started with 10 g of a perchlorate-contaminated soil obtained from a site in Texas. The concentration of PRM was estimated using a 5-tube most probable number (MPN) procedure. To account for discrepancies due to differences in the total number of bacteria (per mass of sample) in the samples, difficulty in removing bacteria from soil samples, and the lack of an unequivocal method to measure total viable cells in these different systems, we normalized our MPN results on the basis of 106 or 109 total bacteria counted using acridine orange direct counts (AODC). There were more PRM in wastewater samples on a per-cell basis (15 to 350 PRM/106-AODC) than in water samples (0.02 to 0.4 PRM/106-AODC). There were also more PRM in soils from sites exhibiting direct evidence of perchlorate contamination (100 to 200 PRM/109-AODC) than from other sites (nondetectable to 0.77 PRM/109-AODC). These results demonstrate that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are present at perchlorate-contaminated sites, and that perchlorate can be degraded by these microorganisms through the addition of different electron donors, such as acetate and lactate.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035357430&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035357430&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/20018891079230

DO - 10.1080/20018891079230

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0035357430

VL - 5

SP - 119

EP - 130

JO - Bioremediation Journal

JF - Bioremediation Journal

SN - 1088-9868

IS - 2

ER -