The outcome for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is quite poor, while, both donor lymphocytes infusion (DLI) and adoptively infusion of γδ T cells in leukemia patients after HSCT have demonstrated good results in prolonging survival time of patients. Here, we reported a T-ALL case who experienced three relapses and received HSCT and DLI with an overall survival (OS) time lasting for more than seven years. Based on our previous identification of a leukemic and reactive clone in this patient, continual γδ T cell repertoire monitoring affirmed that the same Vd5 leukemic clone existed in most samples from the patient, particularly including a sample taken at the time of the third T-ALL relapse, while it could not be detected in the donor sample. In addition, an identical Vd4 monoclonal T cell that proliferated in the recipient for several years was confirmed to come from the donor graft, and its expression level significantly increased in third leukemia recurrence. These results indicate that clonally expanded Vd4 T cells may represent a reconstituted γδ T cell repertoire after HSCT, which also hints to a relatively better outcome for this case. Based on this case study, we recommend DLI should be as a treatment strategy for patients who achieve CR or relapse from HSCT. Moreover, dynamically monitoring the TCR repertoire in patients who receive HSCT will benefit in supervising of malignant clone evolution and residue, identifying T cell clones mediate anti-infection, GvHD or GvL.
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