Pharmacokinetics and excretion of 14C-omacetaxine in patients with advanced solid tumors

Cynthia M. Nijenhuis, Edward Hellriegel, Jos H. Beijnen, Diane Hershock, Alwin D.R. Huitema, Luc Lucas, Marja Mergui-Roelvink, Mihaela Munteanu, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt, Philmore Robertson, Hilde Rosing, Ofer Spiegelstein, Jan H.M. Schellens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is indicated in adults with chronic myeloid leukemia resistant and/or intolerant to ≥ 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments. This phase I study assessed the disposition, elimination, and safety of 14C-omacetaxine in patients with solid tumors. Methods The study comprised a 7-days pharmacokinetic assessment followed by a treatment period of ≤ six 28-days cycles. A single subcutaneous dose of 1.25 mg/m2 14C-omacetaxine was administered to six patients. Blood, urine, and feces were collected through 168 h or until radioactivity excreted within 24 h was <1 % of the dose. Total radioactivity (TRA) was measured in all matrices and concentrations of omacetaxine, 4′-desmethylhomoharringtonine (4′-DMHHT), and cephalotaxine were measured in plasma and urine. For each treatment cycle, patients received 1.25 mg/m2 omacetaxine twice daily for 7 days. Results Mean TRA recovered was approximately 81 % of the dose, with approximately half of the radioactivity recovered in feces and half in urine. Approximately 20 % of the dose was excreted unchanged in urine; cephalotaxine (0.4 % of dose) and 4′ DMHHT (9 %) were also present. Plasma concentrations of TRA were higher than the sum of omacetaxine and known metabolites, suggesting the presence of other 14C-omacetaxine-derived compounds. Fatigue and anemia were common, consistent with the known toxicity profile of omacetaxine. Conclusion Renal and hepatic processes contribute to the elimination of 14C-omacetaxine-derived radioactivity in cancer patients. In addition to omacetaxine and its known metabolites, other 14C-omacetaxine-derived materials appear to be present in plasma and urine. Omacetaxine was adequately tolerated, with no new safety signals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-574
Number of pages10
JournalInvestigational New Drugs
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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