Pharmacotherapy of tetanus--a review.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With adequate immunization, tetanus caused by the gram-positive anaerobic cocci, clostridium tetani, is a preventable disease. In treating C. tetani infection, Metronidazole as an antibiotic is more effective than Penicillin G since it is a GABA antagonist. Agents used to control spasm and rigidity should have little effect on the level of consciousness, respiration and blood pressure. The drug of choice for treating spasm and rigidity is benzodiazepine, a GABA agonists. Large doses of benzodiazepines may be required to overcome the spasm and are safe. Baclofen is another GABA agonist, which has been tried as an alternative to benzodiazepine with moderate success. Clinical experience with dantrolene sodium is limited. Magnesium with its unique properties on the neuromuscular junction and sympathetic system has been used to treat both spasms and autonomic dysfunction with limited success. Neuromuscular blocking drugs are indicated depending on the severity of spasms. Neuromuscular blocking drugs with steroid molecule should be avoided in view of prolonged weakness. No drug has consistently proven to be effective in the treatment of autonomic dysfunction. Beta-blockers, variation of and beta blockers, opioids, clonidine, magnesium, spinal and epidural anaesthesia have been tried with varying success. Beta-blockers should be used with caution as they have been implicated in the deaths of some patients with autonomic dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-442
Number of pages24
JournalMiddle East journal of anesthesiology
Volume16
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Fingerprint

Tetanus
Spasm
Drug Therapy
Clostridium tetani
Benzodiazepines
GABA Agonists
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Magnesium
GABA Antagonists
Dantrolene
Clostridium Infections
Gram-Positive Cocci
Baclofen
Penicillin G
Neuromuscular Junction
Epidural Anesthesia
Spinal Anesthesia
Metronidazole
Clonidine
Consciousness

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

@article{63902056fbf9477681e4f2528681fdec,
title = "Pharmacotherapy of tetanus--a review.",
abstract = "With adequate immunization, tetanus caused by the gram-positive anaerobic cocci, clostridium tetani, is a preventable disease. In treating C. tetani infection, Metronidazole as an antibiotic is more effective than Penicillin G since it is a GABA antagonist. Agents used to control spasm and rigidity should have little effect on the level of consciousness, respiration and blood pressure. The drug of choice for treating spasm and rigidity is benzodiazepine, a GABA agonists. Large doses of benzodiazepines may be required to overcome the spasm and are safe. Baclofen is another GABA agonist, which has been tried as an alternative to benzodiazepine with moderate success. Clinical experience with dantrolene sodium is limited. Magnesium with its unique properties on the neuromuscular junction and sympathetic system has been used to treat both spasms and autonomic dysfunction with limited success. Neuromuscular blocking drugs are indicated depending on the severity of spasms. Neuromuscular blocking drugs with steroid molecule should be avoided in view of prolonged weakness. No drug has consistently proven to be effective in the treatment of autonomic dysfunction. Beta-blockers, variation of and beta blockers, opioids, clonidine, magnesium, spinal and epidural anaesthesia have been tried with varying success. Beta-blockers should be used with caution as they have been implicated in the deaths of some patients with autonomic dysfunction.",
author = "Venugopal Reddy",
year = "2002",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "419--442",
journal = "Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology",
issn = "0544-0440",
publisher = "American University of Beirut",
number = "4",

}

Pharmacotherapy of tetanus--a review. / Reddy, Venugopal.

In: Middle East journal of anesthesiology, Vol. 16, No. 4, 01.01.2002, p. 419-442.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmacotherapy of tetanus--a review.

AU - Reddy, Venugopal

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - With adequate immunization, tetanus caused by the gram-positive anaerobic cocci, clostridium tetani, is a preventable disease. In treating C. tetani infection, Metronidazole as an antibiotic is more effective than Penicillin G since it is a GABA antagonist. Agents used to control spasm and rigidity should have little effect on the level of consciousness, respiration and blood pressure. The drug of choice for treating spasm and rigidity is benzodiazepine, a GABA agonists. Large doses of benzodiazepines may be required to overcome the spasm and are safe. Baclofen is another GABA agonist, which has been tried as an alternative to benzodiazepine with moderate success. Clinical experience with dantrolene sodium is limited. Magnesium with its unique properties on the neuromuscular junction and sympathetic system has been used to treat both spasms and autonomic dysfunction with limited success. Neuromuscular blocking drugs are indicated depending on the severity of spasms. Neuromuscular blocking drugs with steroid molecule should be avoided in view of prolonged weakness. No drug has consistently proven to be effective in the treatment of autonomic dysfunction. Beta-blockers, variation of and beta blockers, opioids, clonidine, magnesium, spinal and epidural anaesthesia have been tried with varying success. Beta-blockers should be used with caution as they have been implicated in the deaths of some patients with autonomic dysfunction.

AB - With adequate immunization, tetanus caused by the gram-positive anaerobic cocci, clostridium tetani, is a preventable disease. In treating C. tetani infection, Metronidazole as an antibiotic is more effective than Penicillin G since it is a GABA antagonist. Agents used to control spasm and rigidity should have little effect on the level of consciousness, respiration and blood pressure. The drug of choice for treating spasm and rigidity is benzodiazepine, a GABA agonists. Large doses of benzodiazepines may be required to overcome the spasm and are safe. Baclofen is another GABA agonist, which has been tried as an alternative to benzodiazepine with moderate success. Clinical experience with dantrolene sodium is limited. Magnesium with its unique properties on the neuromuscular junction and sympathetic system has been used to treat both spasms and autonomic dysfunction with limited success. Neuromuscular blocking drugs are indicated depending on the severity of spasms. Neuromuscular blocking drugs with steroid molecule should be avoided in view of prolonged weakness. No drug has consistently proven to be effective in the treatment of autonomic dysfunction. Beta-blockers, variation of and beta blockers, opioids, clonidine, magnesium, spinal and epidural anaesthesia have been tried with varying success. Beta-blockers should be used with caution as they have been implicated in the deaths of some patients with autonomic dysfunction.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036483417&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036483417&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Review article

C2 - 11949205

AN - SCOPUS:0036483417

VL - 16

SP - 419

EP - 442

JO - Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology

JF - Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology

SN - 0544-0440

IS - 4

ER -