Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements

Eva Falge, John Tenhunen, Dennis Baldocchi, Marc Aubinet, Peter Bakwin, Paul Berbigier, Christian Bernhofer, Jean Marc Bonnefond, George Burba, Robert Clement, Kenneth James Davis, Jan A. Elbers, Matthias Falk, Allen H. Goldstein, Achim Grelle, André Granier, Thomas Grünwald, Jón Gumundsson, David Hollinger, Ivan A. Janssens & 20 others Petri Keronen, Andrew S. Kowalski, Gabriel Katul, Beverly E. Law, Yadvinder Malhi, Tilden Meyers, Russell K. Monson, Eddy Moors, J. William Munger, Walt Oechel, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Kim Pilegaard, Üllar Rannik, Corinna Rebmann, Andrew Suyker, Halldor Thorgeirsson, Giampiero Tirone, Andrew Turnipseed, Kell Wilson, Steve Wofsy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

132 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As length and timing of the growing season are major factors explaining differences in carbon exchange of ecosystems, we analyzed seasonal patterns of net ecosystem carbon exchange (FNEE) using eddy covariance data of the FLUXNET data base (http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET). The study included boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, rainforest, native and managed temperate grasslands, tundra, and C3 and C4 crops. Generalization of seasonal patterns are useful for identifying functional vegetation types for global dynamic vegetation models, as well as for global inversion studies, and can help improve phenological modules in SVAT or biogeochemical models. The results of this study have important validation potential for global carbon cycle modeling. The phasing of respiratory and assimilatory capacity differed within forest types: for temperate coniferous forests seasonal uptake and release capacities are in phase, for temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests, release was delayed compared to uptake. According to seasonal pattern of maximum nighttime release (evaluated over 15-day periods, Fmax) the study sites can be grouped in four classes: (1) boreal and high altitude conifers and grasslands; (2) temperate deciduous and temperate conifers; (3) tundra and crops; (4) evergreen Mediterranean and tropical forests. Similar results are found for maximum daytime uptake (Fmin) and the integral net carbon flux, but temperate deciduous forests fall into class 1. For forests, seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin increased in the order tropical < Mediterranean and temperate coniferous < temperate deciduous and boreal forests, and the pattern seems relatively stable for these groups. The seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin are largest for managed grasslands and crops. Largest observed values of Fmin varied between -48 and -2 μmol m-2 s-1, decreasing in the order C4-crops > C3-crops > temperate deciduous forests > temperate conifers > boreal conifers > tundra ecosystems. Due to data restrictions, our analysis centered mainly on Northern Hemisphere temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Grasslands, crops, Mediterranean ecosystems, and rainforests are under-represented, as are savanna systems, wooded grassland, shrubland, or year-round measurements in tundra systems. For regional or global estimates of carbon sequestration potentials, future investigations of eddy covariance should expand in these systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-95
Number of pages21
JournalAgricultural and Forest Meteorology
Volume113
Issue number1-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2 2002

Fingerprint

temperate forests
temperate forest
tundra
conifers
coniferous tree
coniferous forest
grassland
deciduous forests
deciduous forest
ecosystems
carbon
ecosystem
coniferous forests
crop
grasslands
seasonal variation
eddy covariance
crops
boreal forests
rainforest

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Falge, Eva ; Tenhunen, John ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Aubinet, Marc ; Bakwin, Peter ; Berbigier, Paul ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Burba, George ; Clement, Robert ; Davis, Kenneth James ; Elbers, Jan A. ; Falk, Matthias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Grelle, Achim ; Granier, André ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Gumundsson, Jón ; Hollinger, David ; Janssens, Ivan A. ; Keronen, Petri ; Kowalski, Andrew S. ; Katul, Gabriel ; Law, Beverly E. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Meyers, Tilden ; Monson, Russell K. ; Moors, Eddy ; Munger, J. William ; Oechel, Walt ; Paw U, Kyaw Tha ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Rannik, Üllar ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Suyker, Andrew ; Thorgeirsson, Halldor ; Tirone, Giampiero ; Turnipseed, Andrew ; Wilson, Kell ; Wofsy, Steve. / Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements. In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2002 ; Vol. 113, No. 1-4. pp. 75-95.
@article{0ee27ac00dfc4051b83a61bcc4634809,
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abstract = "As length and timing of the growing season are major factors explaining differences in carbon exchange of ecosystems, we analyzed seasonal patterns of net ecosystem carbon exchange (FNEE) using eddy covariance data of the FLUXNET data base (http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET). The study included boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, rainforest, native and managed temperate grasslands, tundra, and C3 and C4 crops. Generalization of seasonal patterns are useful for identifying functional vegetation types for global dynamic vegetation models, as well as for global inversion studies, and can help improve phenological modules in SVAT or biogeochemical models. The results of this study have important validation potential for global carbon cycle modeling. The phasing of respiratory and assimilatory capacity differed within forest types: for temperate coniferous forests seasonal uptake and release capacities are in phase, for temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests, release was delayed compared to uptake. According to seasonal pattern of maximum nighttime release (evaluated over 15-day periods, Fmax) the study sites can be grouped in four classes: (1) boreal and high altitude conifers and grasslands; (2) temperate deciduous and temperate conifers; (3) tundra and crops; (4) evergreen Mediterranean and tropical forests. Similar results are found for maximum daytime uptake (Fmin) and the integral net carbon flux, but temperate deciduous forests fall into class 1. For forests, seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin increased in the order tropical < Mediterranean and temperate coniferous < temperate deciduous and boreal forests, and the pattern seems relatively stable for these groups. The seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin are largest for managed grasslands and crops. Largest observed values of Fmin varied between -48 and -2 μmol m-2 s-1, decreasing in the order C4-crops > C3-crops > temperate deciduous forests > temperate conifers > boreal conifers > tundra ecosystems. Due to data restrictions, our analysis centered mainly on Northern Hemisphere temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Grasslands, crops, Mediterranean ecosystems, and rainforests are under-represented, as are savanna systems, wooded grassland, shrubland, or year-round measurements in tundra systems. For regional or global estimates of carbon sequestration potentials, future investigations of eddy covariance should expand in these systems.",
author = "Eva Falge and John Tenhunen and Dennis Baldocchi and Marc Aubinet and Peter Bakwin and Paul Berbigier and Christian Bernhofer and Bonnefond, {Jean Marc} and George Burba and Robert Clement and Davis, {Kenneth James} and Elbers, {Jan A.} and Matthias Falk and Goldstein, {Allen H.} and Achim Grelle and Andr{\'e} Granier and Thomas Gr{\"u}nwald and J{\'o}n Gumundsson and David Hollinger and Janssens, {Ivan A.} and Petri Keronen and Kowalski, {Andrew S.} and Gabriel Katul and Law, {Beverly E.} and Yadvinder Malhi and Tilden Meyers and Monson, {Russell K.} and Eddy Moors and Munger, {J. William} and Walt Oechel and {Paw U}, {Kyaw Tha} and Kim Pilegaard and {\"U}llar Rannik and Corinna Rebmann and Andrew Suyker and Halldor Thorgeirsson and Giampiero Tirone and Andrew Turnipseed and Kell Wilson and Steve Wofsy",
year = "2002",
month = "12",
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doi = "10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00103-X",
language = "English (US)",
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pages = "75--95",
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issn = "0168-1923",
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Falge, E, Tenhunen, J, Baldocchi, D, Aubinet, M, Bakwin, P, Berbigier, P, Bernhofer, C, Bonnefond, JM, Burba, G, Clement, R, Davis, KJ, Elbers, JA, Falk, M, Goldstein, AH, Grelle, A, Granier, A, Grünwald, T, Gumundsson, J, Hollinger, D, Janssens, IA, Keronen, P, Kowalski, AS, Katul, G, Law, BE, Malhi, Y, Meyers, T, Monson, RK, Moors, E, Munger, JW, Oechel, W, Paw U, KT, Pilegaard, K, Rannik, Ü, Rebmann, C, Suyker, A, Thorgeirsson, H, Tirone, G, Turnipseed, A, Wilson, K & Wofsy, S 2002, 'Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements', Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 113, no. 1-4, pp. 75-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00103-X

Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements. / Falge, Eva; Tenhunen, John; Baldocchi, Dennis; Aubinet, Marc; Bakwin, Peter; Berbigier, Paul; Bernhofer, Christian; Bonnefond, Jean Marc; Burba, George; Clement, Robert; Davis, Kenneth James; Elbers, Jan A.; Falk, Matthias; Goldstein, Allen H.; Grelle, Achim; Granier, André; Grünwald, Thomas; Gumundsson, Jón; Hollinger, David; Janssens, Ivan A.; Keronen, Petri; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Katul, Gabriel; Law, Beverly E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meyers, Tilden; Monson, Russell K.; Moors, Eddy; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walt; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Pilegaard, Kim; Rannik, Üllar; Rebmann, Corinna; Suyker, Andrew; Thorgeirsson, Halldor; Tirone, Giampiero; Turnipseed, Andrew; Wilson, Kell; Wofsy, Steve.

In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 113, No. 1-4, 02.12.2002, p. 75-95.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Phase and amplitude of ecosystem carbon release and uptake potentials as derived from FLUXNET measurements

AU - Falge, Eva

AU - Tenhunen, John

AU - Baldocchi, Dennis

AU - Aubinet, Marc

AU - Bakwin, Peter

AU - Berbigier, Paul

AU - Bernhofer, Christian

AU - Bonnefond, Jean Marc

AU - Burba, George

AU - Clement, Robert

AU - Davis, Kenneth James

AU - Elbers, Jan A.

AU - Falk, Matthias

AU - Goldstein, Allen H.

AU - Grelle, Achim

AU - Granier, André

AU - Grünwald, Thomas

AU - Gumundsson, Jón

AU - Hollinger, David

AU - Janssens, Ivan A.

AU - Keronen, Petri

AU - Kowalski, Andrew S.

AU - Katul, Gabriel

AU - Law, Beverly E.

AU - Malhi, Yadvinder

AU - Meyers, Tilden

AU - Monson, Russell K.

AU - Moors, Eddy

AU - Munger, J. William

AU - Oechel, Walt

AU - Paw U, Kyaw Tha

AU - Pilegaard, Kim

AU - Rannik, Üllar

AU - Rebmann, Corinna

AU - Suyker, Andrew

AU - Thorgeirsson, Halldor

AU - Tirone, Giampiero

AU - Turnipseed, Andrew

AU - Wilson, Kell

AU - Wofsy, Steve

PY - 2002/12/2

Y1 - 2002/12/2

N2 - As length and timing of the growing season are major factors explaining differences in carbon exchange of ecosystems, we analyzed seasonal patterns of net ecosystem carbon exchange (FNEE) using eddy covariance data of the FLUXNET data base (http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET). The study included boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, rainforest, native and managed temperate grasslands, tundra, and C3 and C4 crops. Generalization of seasonal patterns are useful for identifying functional vegetation types for global dynamic vegetation models, as well as for global inversion studies, and can help improve phenological modules in SVAT or biogeochemical models. The results of this study have important validation potential for global carbon cycle modeling. The phasing of respiratory and assimilatory capacity differed within forest types: for temperate coniferous forests seasonal uptake and release capacities are in phase, for temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests, release was delayed compared to uptake. According to seasonal pattern of maximum nighttime release (evaluated over 15-day periods, Fmax) the study sites can be grouped in four classes: (1) boreal and high altitude conifers and grasslands; (2) temperate deciduous and temperate conifers; (3) tundra and crops; (4) evergreen Mediterranean and tropical forests. Similar results are found for maximum daytime uptake (Fmin) and the integral net carbon flux, but temperate deciduous forests fall into class 1. For forests, seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin increased in the order tropical < Mediterranean and temperate coniferous < temperate deciduous and boreal forests, and the pattern seems relatively stable for these groups. The seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin are largest for managed grasslands and crops. Largest observed values of Fmin varied between -48 and -2 μmol m-2 s-1, decreasing in the order C4-crops > C3-crops > temperate deciduous forests > temperate conifers > boreal conifers > tundra ecosystems. Due to data restrictions, our analysis centered mainly on Northern Hemisphere temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Grasslands, crops, Mediterranean ecosystems, and rainforests are under-represented, as are savanna systems, wooded grassland, shrubland, or year-round measurements in tundra systems. For regional or global estimates of carbon sequestration potentials, future investigations of eddy covariance should expand in these systems.

AB - As length and timing of the growing season are major factors explaining differences in carbon exchange of ecosystems, we analyzed seasonal patterns of net ecosystem carbon exchange (FNEE) using eddy covariance data of the FLUXNET data base (http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/FLUXNET). The study included boreal and temperate, deciduous and coniferous forests, Mediterranean evergreen systems, rainforest, native and managed temperate grasslands, tundra, and C3 and C4 crops. Generalization of seasonal patterns are useful for identifying functional vegetation types for global dynamic vegetation models, as well as for global inversion studies, and can help improve phenological modules in SVAT or biogeochemical models. The results of this study have important validation potential for global carbon cycle modeling. The phasing of respiratory and assimilatory capacity differed within forest types: for temperate coniferous forests seasonal uptake and release capacities are in phase, for temperate deciduous and boreal coniferous forests, release was delayed compared to uptake. According to seasonal pattern of maximum nighttime release (evaluated over 15-day periods, Fmax) the study sites can be grouped in four classes: (1) boreal and high altitude conifers and grasslands; (2) temperate deciduous and temperate conifers; (3) tundra and crops; (4) evergreen Mediterranean and tropical forests. Similar results are found for maximum daytime uptake (Fmin) and the integral net carbon flux, but temperate deciduous forests fall into class 1. For forests, seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin increased in the order tropical < Mediterranean and temperate coniferous < temperate deciduous and boreal forests, and the pattern seems relatively stable for these groups. The seasonal amplitudes of Fmax and Fmin are largest for managed grasslands and crops. Largest observed values of Fmin varied between -48 and -2 μmol m-2 s-1, decreasing in the order C4-crops > C3-crops > temperate deciduous forests > temperate conifers > boreal conifers > tundra ecosystems. Due to data restrictions, our analysis centered mainly on Northern Hemisphere temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Grasslands, crops, Mediterranean ecosystems, and rainforests are under-represented, as are savanna systems, wooded grassland, shrubland, or year-round measurements in tundra systems. For regional or global estimates of carbon sequestration potentials, future investigations of eddy covariance should expand in these systems.

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037010659&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00103-X

DO - 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00103-X

M3 - Article

VL - 113

SP - 75

EP - 95

JO - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

JF - Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

SN - 0168-1923

IS - 1-4

ER -