Phase-averaged and cycle-to-cycle analysis of key contributors to sound production in phonation is examined in a scaled-up vocal-fold model. Simultaneous temporally and spatially resolved pressure and velocity measurements permitted examination of each term in the streamwise integral momentum equation. The relative sizes of these terms were used to address the issue of whether transglottal pressure is a surrogate for vocal-fold drag, a quantity directly related to sound production. Further, time traces of transglottal pressure and volume flow rate provided insight into the role of cycle-to-cycle variations in voiced sound production which affect voice quality. Experiments were conducted using a 10× scaled-up model in a free-surface water tunnel. Two-dimensional vocal-fold models with semi-circular ends inside a square duct were driven with constant opening and closing speeds. The time from opening to closed, To, was half the oscillation period. Time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and pressure measurements along the duct centreline were made for 3650 ≤ Re ≤ 8100 and equivalent life frequencies from 52.5 to 97.5 Hz. Results showed that transglottal pressure does serve as a surrogate for the vocal-fold drag. However, smaller but non-negligible momentum flux and inertia terms, caused by the jet and vocal-fold motions, may also contribute to vocal-fold drag. Further, cycle-to-cycle variations including jet switching and modulation are inherent in flows of this type despite their high degrees of symmetry and repeatability. The origins of these variations and their potential role in sound production and voice quality are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering