Polarization switching in a ferroelectric subjected to an electric field or a stress field is simulated using a phase-field model based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which takes both multiple-dipole-dipole-electric and multiple-dipole-dipole-elastic interactions into account. The temporal evolution of the polarization switching shows that the switching is a process of nucleation, if needed, and growth of energy-favorite domains. Macroscopic polarization and strain are obtained by averaging polarizations and strains over the entire simulated ferroelectric. The simulation results successfully reveal the hysteresis loop of macroscopic polarization versus the applied electric field, the butterfly curve of macroscopic strain versus the applied electric field, and the macroscopically nonlinear strain response to applied compressive stresses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Polymers and Plastics
- Metals and Alloys