Purpose: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of sorafenib, bevacizumab, and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in children and young adults with recurrent/refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design: Sorafenib dose was escalated from 90 to 110mg/m2 twice daily with fixed doses of bevacizumab at 5 mg/kg every 3 weeks and cyclophosphamide at 50 mg/m2 daily. Once sorafenib's MTD was established, bevacizumab dose was escalated. Each course was of 21 days. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies were conducted during the first course. Results: Nineteen patients (11 males; median age, 9.2 years) received a median of four courses (range, 1-23). DLTs during course 1 included grade 3 rash (two), increased lipase (one), anorexia (one), and thrombus (one). With an additional 71 courses of therapy, the most common toxicities ≥ grade 3 included neutropenia (nine), lymphopenia (nine), and rashes (four). Five of 17 evaluable patients had partial tumor responses, and five had disease stabilization (>2 courses). Median day 1 cyclophosphamide apparent oral clearance was 3.13 L/h/m2. Median day 1 sorafenib apparent oral clearance was 44 and 39 mL/min/m2at the 2 dose levels evaluated, and steady-state concentrations ranged from 1.64 to 4.8 mg/L. Inhibition of serum VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was inversely correlated with sorafenib steady-state concentrations (P = 0.019). Conclusion: The recommended phase II doses are sorafenib, 90mg/m2 twice daily; bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg q3 weeks; and cyclophosphamide, 50mg/m2 once daily. This regimen is feasible with promising evidence of antitumor activity that warrants further investigation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research