Phosphatidic acid (PA) level increases during various stress conditions. However, the physiological roles of this lipid in stress response remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that PA induced leaf cell death and elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the whole leaf and single cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of PA-induced cell death, we then examined whether Rho-related small G protein (ROP) 2, which enhanced ROS production in an in vitro assay, is involved in PA-induced ROS production and cell death. In response to PA, transgenic leaves of Arabidopsis expressing a constitutively active rop2 mutant exhibited earlier cell death and higher levels of ROS than wild type (WT), whereas those expressing a dominant-negative rop2 mutant exhibited later cell death and lower ROS. However, in the absence of exogenous PA, no spontaneous cell death or elevated ROS was observed in constitutively active rop2 plants, suggesting that the activation of ROP GTPase alone is insufficient to activate the ROP-mediated ROS generation pathway. These results suggest that PA modulates an additional factor required for the active ROP-mediated ROS generation pathway. Therefore, PA may be an important regulator of ROP-regulated ROS generation and the cell death process during various stress and defense responses of plants.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science