Phosphorus concentrations in overland flow from diverse locations on a New York dairy farm

W. Dean Hively, Ray B. Bryant, Timothy J. Fahey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The National Phosphorus Project rainfall simulator was used to quantify overland flow and P transport from nine sites distributed throughout the watershed of a New York City Watershed Agriculture Program collaborating dairy farm. Observed concentrations of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were low (0.007-0.12 mg L-1) in flow from deciduous forest, extensively managed pasture, and hillside seeps; moderate (0.18-0.64 mg L-1) in flow from intensively managed pastures, a hayfield, and a cow path; and extremely high (11.6 mg L-1) in flow from a manured barnyard. Concentrations of TDP from sites without fresh manure were strongly correlated with soil test P (TDP [mg L-1] = 0.0056 + 0.0180 × Morgan's soil test phosphorus [STP, mg kg-1]; R2 = 84%). Observed concentrations of suspended solids were low (16-137 mg L-1) in flow from vegetated sites, but were higher (375-615 mg L-1) in flow from sites with little ground cover (barnyard, cow path, plowed field). Under dry summer conditions the time to observed overland flow was shorter (<18 min) for nonfield areas (seeps, barnyard, cow path) than for field and forest areas (27-93 min), indicating that hydrologically active nonfield areas of minor spatial extent but with high soil P (e.g., cow paths and barnyards) can play a significant role in summertime P loading. When soils started from field capacity (second-day) time to overland flow was uniformly less than 23 min, indicating that under wet watershed conditions low-P source areas can dilute overland flow from concentrated sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1224-1233
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

Fingerprint

Dairies
overland flow
Farms
Phosphorus
phosphorus
Watersheds
Soils
soil test
watershed
pasture
Manures
ground cover
field capacity
deciduous forest
Agriculture
Rain
simulator
manure
soil
Simulators

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Cite this

Hively, W. Dean ; Bryant, Ray B. ; Fahey, Timothy J. / Phosphorus concentrations in overland flow from diverse locations on a New York dairy farm. In: Journal of Environmental Quality. 2005 ; Vol. 34, No. 4. pp. 1224-1233.
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Phosphorus concentrations in overland flow from diverse locations on a New York dairy farm. / Hively, W. Dean; Bryant, Ray B.; Fahey, Timothy J.

In: Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 34, No. 4, 01.07.2005, p. 1224-1233.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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