Photonic floquet topological insulators

Mikael C. Rechtsman, Julia M. Zeuner, Yonatan Plotnik, Yaakov Lumer, Daniel Podolsky, Felix Dreisow, Stefan Nolte, Mordechai Segev, Alexander Szameit

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as 'time'. Thus the waveguides' helicity breaks zreversal symmetry in the sense akin to Floquet Topological Insulators. This structure results in scatter-free, oneway edge states that are topologically protected from scattering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationActive Photonic Materials V
Volume8808
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 18 2013
EventActive Photonic Materials V - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 25 2013Aug 29 2013

Other

OtherActive Photonic Materials V
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period8/25/138/29/13

Fingerprint

Insulator
Photonics
insulators
photonics
Photonic crystals
Helical waveguides
Magnetic fields
Optical lattices
Quantum Hall effect
Scatter
Magnetoelectronics
Graphite
Electrons
Crystal symmetry
Electromagnetic waves
Transport properties
Graphene
Superconducting materials
Insulation
Photonic Crystal

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Rechtsman, M. C., Zeuner, J. M., Plotnik, Y., Lumer, Y., Podolsky, D., Dreisow, F., ... Szameit, A. (2013). Photonic floquet topological insulators. In Active Photonic Materials V (Vol. 8808). [880815] https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2023842
Rechtsman, Mikael C. ; Zeuner, Julia M. ; Plotnik, Yonatan ; Lumer, Yaakov ; Podolsky, Daniel ; Dreisow, Felix ; Nolte, Stefan ; Segev, Mordechai ; Szameit, Alexander. / Photonic floquet topological insulators. Active Photonic Materials V. Vol. 8808 2013.
@inproceedings{a2f605b2143f41b194ccbd335045c315,
title = "Photonic floquet topological insulators",
abstract = "Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schr{\"o}dinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as 'time'. Thus the waveguides' helicity breaks zreversal symmetry in the sense akin to Floquet Topological Insulators. This structure results in scatter-free, oneway edge states that are topologically protected from scattering.",
author = "Rechtsman, {Mikael C.} and Zeuner, {Julia M.} and Yonatan Plotnik and Yaakov Lumer and Daniel Podolsky and Felix Dreisow and Stefan Nolte and Mordechai Segev and Alexander Szameit",
year = "2013",
month = "10",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1117/12.2023842",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780819496584",
volume = "8808",
booktitle = "Active Photonic Materials V",

}

Rechtsman, MC, Zeuner, JM, Plotnik, Y, Lumer, Y, Podolsky, D, Dreisow, F, Nolte, S, Segev, M & Szameit, A 2013, Photonic floquet topological insulators. in Active Photonic Materials V. vol. 8808, 880815, Active Photonic Materials V, San Diego, CA, United States, 8/25/13. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2023842

Photonic floquet topological insulators. / Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander.

Active Photonic Materials V. Vol. 8808 2013. 880815.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Photonic floquet topological insulators

AU - Rechtsman, Mikael C.

AU - Zeuner, Julia M.

AU - Plotnik, Yonatan

AU - Lumer, Yaakov

AU - Podolsky, Daniel

AU - Dreisow, Felix

AU - Nolte, Stefan

AU - Segev, Mordechai

AU - Szameit, Alexander

PY - 2013/10/18

Y1 - 2013/10/18

N2 - Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as 'time'. Thus the waveguides' helicity breaks zreversal symmetry in the sense akin to Floquet Topological Insulators. This structure results in scatter-free, oneway edge states that are topologically protected from scattering.

AB - Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as 'time'. Thus the waveguides' helicity breaks zreversal symmetry in the sense akin to Floquet Topological Insulators. This structure results in scatter-free, oneway edge states that are topologically protected from scattering.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84885451262&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84885451262&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.2023842

DO - 10.1117/12.2023842

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84885451262

SN - 9780819496584

VL - 8808

BT - Active Photonic Materials V

ER -

Rechtsman MC, Zeuner JM, Plotnik Y, Lumer Y, Podolsky D, Dreisow F et al. Photonic floquet topological insulators. In Active Photonic Materials V. Vol. 8808. 2013. 880815 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2023842