With rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant microbes, it is imperative to seek alternative means for infection control. Optical waveguides are an auspicious delivery method for precise administration of phototherapy. Studies have shown that phototherapy is promising in fighting against a myriad of infectious pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa) including biofilm-forming species and drug-resistant strains while evading treatment resistance. When administered via optical waveguides, phototherapy can treat both superficial and deep-tissue infections while minimizing off-site effects that afflict conventional phototherapy and pharmacotherapy. Despite great therapeutic potential, exact mechanisms, materials, and fabrication designs to optimize this promising treatment option are underexplored. This review outlines principles and applications of phototherapy and optical waveguides for infection control. Research advances, challenges, and outlook regarding this delivery system are rigorously discussed in a hope to inspire future developments of optical waveguide-mediated phototherapy for the management of infection and beyond.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science