The first comprehensive analysis of higher-level phylogeny of the order Hymenoptera is presented. The analysis includes representatives of all extant superfamilies, scored for 392 morphological characters, and sequence data for four loci (18S, 28S, COI and EF-1α). Including three outgroup taxa, 111 terminals were analyzed. Relationships within symphytans (sawflies) and Apocrita are mostly resolved. Well supported relationships include: Xyeloidea is monophyletic, Cephoidea is the sister group of Siricoidea+[Xiphydrioidea+(Orussoidea+Apocrita)]; Anaxyelidae is included in the Siricoidea, and together they are the sister group of Xiphydrioidea+(Orussoidea+Apocrita); Orussoidea is the sister group of Apocrita, Apocrita is monophyletic; Evanioidea is monophyletic; Aculeata is the sister group of Evanioidea; Proctotrupomorpha is monophyletic; Ichneumonoidea is the sister group of Proctotrupomorpha; Platygastroidea is sister group to Cynipoidea, and together they are sister group to the remaining Proctotrupomorpha; Proctotrupoidea s. str. is monophyletic; Mymarommatoidea is the sister group of Chalcidoidea; Mymarommatoidea+Chalcidoidea+Diaprioidea is monophyletic. Weakly supported relationships include: Stephanoidea is the sister group of the remaining Apocrita; Diaprioidea is monophyletic; Ceraphronoidea is the sister group of Megalyroidea, which together form the sister group of [Trigonaloidea (Aculeata+Evanioidea)]. Aside from paraphyly of Vespoidea within Aculeata, all currently recognized superfamilies are supported as monophyletic. The diapriid subfamily Ismarinae is raised to family status, Ismaridae stat. nov.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics