Physics-based simulation of the impact of demand response on lead-acid emergency power availability in a datacenter

A. Mamun, D. Wang, I. Narayanan, A. Sivasubramaniam, H. K. Fathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper uses a one-dimensional, physics-based model of a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery to examine the impact of demand response on uninterruptible power supply (UPS) availability in a datacenter. Datacenters are facilities that provide services such as cloud computing, web search, etc. They are also large electricity consumers. An energy-efficient 15 MW datacenter, for instance, may pay $1 m per month for electricity. Datacenters often utilize VRLA batteries to ensure high reliability in serving their computational demand. This motivates the paper's central question: to what extent does the use of datacenter UPS batteries for demand response affect their availability for their primary purpose (namely, emergency power)? We address this question using a physics-based model of the coupled diffusion-reaction dynamics of VRLA batteries. We discretize this model using finite differences, and simulate it for different datacenter battery pack sizes. The results show that for a typical datacenter power demand profile, a VRLA battery pack sized for UPS functionality can provide demand response with only a minimal loss of UPS availability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)516-524
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume275
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015

Fingerprint

lead acid batteries
Uninterruptible power systems
Lead acid batteries
emergencies
power supplies
availability
Physics
Lead
Availability
acids
physics
Acids
electricity
electric batteries
Electricity
simulation
Cloud computing
profiles
energy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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abstract = "This paper uses a one-dimensional, physics-based model of a valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery to examine the impact of demand response on uninterruptible power supply (UPS) availability in a datacenter. Datacenters are facilities that provide services such as cloud computing, web search, etc. They are also large electricity consumers. An energy-efficient 15 MW datacenter, for instance, may pay $1 m per month for electricity. Datacenters often utilize VRLA batteries to ensure high reliability in serving their computational demand. This motivates the paper's central question: to what extent does the use of datacenter UPS batteries for demand response affect their availability for their primary purpose (namely, emergency power)? We address this question using a physics-based model of the coupled diffusion-reaction dynamics of VRLA batteries. We discretize this model using finite differences, and simulate it for different datacenter battery pack sizes. The results show that for a typical datacenter power demand profile, a VRLA battery pack sized for UPS functionality can provide demand response with only a minimal loss of UPS availability.",
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Physics-based simulation of the impact of demand response on lead-acid emergency power availability in a datacenter. / Mamun, A.; Wang, D.; Narayanan, I.; Sivasubramaniam, A.; Fathy, H. K.

In: Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 275, 01.02.2015, p. 516-524.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Fathy, H. K.

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