Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus

Larry Miller, Pere Clavé, Ricard Farré, Begoña Lecea, Michael R. Ruggieri, Ann Ouyang, Julie Regan, Barry P. Mcmahon

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Abstract

The following discussion on the physiology of the esophagus includes commentaries on the function of the muscularis mucosa and submucosa as a mechanical antireflux barrier in the esophagus; the different mechanisms of neurological control in the esophageal striated and smooth muscle; new insights from animal models into the neurotransmitters mediating lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, peristalsis in the esophageal body (EB), and motility of esophageal smooth muscle; differentiation between in vitro properties of the lower esophageal circular muscle, clasp muscle, and sling fibers; alterations in the relationship between pharyngeal contraction and relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in patients with dysphagia; the mechanical relationships between anterior hyoid movement, the extent of upper esophageal opening, and aspiration; the application of fluoroscopy and manometry with biomechanics to define the stages of UES opening; and nonpharmacological approaches to alter the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-277
Number of pages17
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume1300
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

Cite this

Miller, L., Clavé, P., Farré, R., Lecea, B., Ruggieri, M. R., Ouyang, A., Regan, J., & Mcmahon, B. P. (2013). Physiology of the upper segment, body, and lower segment of the esophagus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1300(1), 261-277. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12250