This chapter provides the introductory information on piezoelectric energy harvesting covering various aspects such as modeling, selection of materials, vibration harvesting device design using bulk and MEMS approach, and energy harvesting circuits. All these characteristics are illustrated through selective examples. A simple step-by-step procedure is presented to design the cantilever beam based energy harvester by incorporating piezoelectric material at maximum stress points in first and second resonance modes. Suitable piezoelectric material for vibration energy harvesting is characterized by the large magnitude of product of the piezoelectric voltage constant (g) and the piezoelectric strain constant (d) given as (d· g). The condition for obtaining large magnitude of d·g has been shown to be as |d| =εn, where ε is the permittivity of the material and n is a material parameter having lower limit of 0.5. The material can be in the form of polycrystalline ceramics, textured ceramics, thin films, and polymers. A brief coverage of various material systems is provided in all these categories. Using these materials different transducer structures can be fabricated depending upon the desired frequency and vibration amplitude such as multilayer, MFC, bimorph, amplified piezoelectric actuator, QuickPack, rainbow, cymbal, and moonie. The concept of multimodal energy harvesting is introduced at the end of the chapter. This concept provides the opportunity for further enhancement of power density by combining two different energy-harvesting schemes in one system such that one assists the other.
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