Pistachios increase serum antioxidants and lower serum oxidized-LDL in hypercholesterolemic adults

Colin D. Kay, Sarah K. Gebauer, Sheila G. West, Penny M. Kris-Etherton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pistachios are high in lutein, β-carotene, and γ-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P<0.0001), a-carotene, and β-carotene (P<0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P<0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P<0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P<0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P<0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and γ-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = 20.36, P = 0.06 and r = 20.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1093-1098
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume140
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

Fingerprint

Pistacia
Antioxidants
Diet
Serum
Lutein
Fats
Tocopherols
Carotenoids
LDL Cholesterol
oxidized low density lipoprotein
low density lipoprotein inhibitor
Nuts

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{99ceb6b32c224b2a9b21a7906736cff3,
title = "Pistachios increase serum antioxidants and lower serum oxidized-LDL in hypercholesterolemic adults",
abstract = "Pistachios are high in lutein, β-carotene, and γ-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25{\%} total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10{\%} energy from pistachios; 30{\%} total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20{\%} energy from pistachios; 34{\%} total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P<0.0001), a-carotene, and β-carotene (P<0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P<0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P<0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P<0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P<0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and γ-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = 20.36, P = 0.06 and r = 20.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.",
author = "Kay, {Colin D.} and Gebauer, {Sarah K.} and West, {Sheila G.} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny M.}",
year = "2010",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3945/jn.109.117366",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "140",
pages = "1093--1098",
journal = "Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "6",

}

Pistachios increase serum antioxidants and lower serum oxidized-LDL in hypercholesterolemic adults. / Kay, Colin D.; Gebauer, Sarah K.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 140, No. 6, 01.06.2010, p. 1093-1098.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pistachios increase serum antioxidants and lower serum oxidized-LDL in hypercholesterolemic adults

AU - Kay, Colin D.

AU - Gebauer, Sarah K.

AU - West, Sheila G.

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

PY - 2010/6/1

Y1 - 2010/6/1

N2 - Pistachios are high in lutein, β-carotene, and γ-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P<0.0001), a-carotene, and β-carotene (P<0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P<0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P<0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P<0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P<0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and γ-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = 20.36, P = 0.06 and r = 20.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.

AB - Pistachios are high in lutein, β-carotene, and γ-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol ≥2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P<0.0001), a-carotene, and β-carotene (P<0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P<0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P<0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P<0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P<0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P<0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and γ-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = 20.36, P = 0.06 and r = 20.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77952662955&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77952662955&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3945/jn.109.117366

DO - 10.3945/jn.109.117366

M3 - Article

C2 - 20357077

AN - SCOPUS:77952662955

VL - 140

SP - 1093

EP - 1098

JO - Journal of Nutrition

JF - Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 6

ER -