Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood

Christine Heim, D. Jeffrey Newport, Stacey Heit, Yolanda P. Graham, Molly Wilcox, Robert Bonsall, Andrew H. Miller, Charles B. Nemeroff

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Context Evidence suggests that early adverse experiences play a preeminent role in development of mood and anxiety disorders and that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems may mediate this association. Objective To determine whether early-life stress results in a persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to mild stress in adulthood, thereby contributing to vulnerability to psychopathological conditions. Design and Setti�?' Prospective controlled study conducted from May 1997 to July 1999 at the General Clinical Research Center of Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Participants Forty-nine healthy women aged 18 to 45 years with regular menses, with no history of mania or psychosis, with no active substance abuse or eating disorder within 6 months, and who were free of hormonal and psychotropic medications were recruited into 4 study groups (n=12 with no history of childhood abuse or psychiatric disorder [controls]; n = 13 with diagnosis of current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; n=14 without current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; and n=10 with diagnosis of current major depression and no history of childhood abuse). Main Outcome Measures Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and heart rate responses to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor compared among the 4 study groups. Results Women with a history of childhood abuse exhibited Increased pituitaryadrenal and autonomic responses to stress compared with controls. This effect was particularly robust in women with current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women with a history of childhood abuse and a current major depression diagnosis exhibited a more than 6-fold greater ACTH response to stress than age-matched controls (net peak of9.0 pmoi/L [41.0 pg/ml]; 95% confidence interval (CIJ, 4.7-13.3 pmoi/L [21.6- 60.4 pg/mU; vs net peak of 1.4 pmoi/L [6.19 pg/mU; 95% Cl, 0.2-2.5 pmoi/L [1.0- 11.4 pg/mll; difference, 8.6 pmoi/L [38.9 pg/ml]; 95% Cl, 4.6-12.6 pmoi/L [20.8- 57.1 pg/mll; P<.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system hyperreactlvlty, presumably due to CRF hypersecretion, is a persistent consequence of childhood abuse that may contribute to the diathesis for adulthood psychopathological conditions. Furthermore, these results imply a role for CRF receptor antagonists in the prevention and treatment of psychopathological conditions related to early-life stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThe Science of Mental Health
Subtitle of host publicationStress and the Brain
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Pages84-89
Number of pages6
Volume9
ISBN (Electronic)9781317970972
ISBN (Print)0815337434, 9780815337522
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

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    Heim, C., Jeffrey Newport, D., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2013). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. In The Science of Mental Health: Stress and the Brain (Vol. 9, pp. 84-89). Taylor and Francis.