Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler

Andrew W. Howard, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Stephen T. Bryson, Jon M. Jenkins, Jason F. Rowe, Natalie M. Batalha, William J. Borucki, David G. Koch, Edward W. Dunham, Thomas N. Gautier, Jeffrey Van Cleve, William D. Cochran, David W. Latham, Jack J. Lissauer, Guillermo Torres, Timothy M. Brown, Ronald Lynn Gilliland, Lars A. Buchhave, Douglas A. Caldwell, Jorgen Christensen-Dalsgaard & 47 others David Ciardi, Francois Fressin, Michael R. Haas, Steve B. Howell, Hans Kjeldsen, Sara Seager, Leslie Rogers, Dimitar D. Sasselov, Jason H. Steffen, Gibor S. Basri, David Charbonneau, Jessie Christiansen, Bruce Clarke, Andrea Dupree, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Debra A. Fischer, Eric B. Ford, Jonathan J. Fortney, Jill Tarter, Forrest R. Girouard, Matthew J. Holman, John Asher Johnson, Todd C. Klaus, Pavel MacHalek, Althea V. Moorhead, Robert C. Morehead, Darin Ragozzine, Peter Tenenbaum, Joseph D. Twicken, Samuel N. Quinn, Howard Isaacson, Avi Shporer, Philip W. Lucas, Lucianne M. Walkowicz, William F. Welsh, Alan Boss, Edna Devore, Alan Gould, Jeffrey C. Smith, Robert L. Morris, Andrej Prsa, Timothy D. Morton, Martin Still, Susan E. Thompson, Fergal Mullally, Michael Endl, Phillip J. MacQueen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

525 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the 1235 planets (formally "planet candidates") from the Kepler mission that include a nearly complete set of detected planets as small as 2 R . For each of the 156,000 target stars, we assess the detectability of planets as a function of planet radius, R p, and orbital period, P, using a measure of the detection efficiency for each star. We also correct for the geometric probability of transit, R /a. We consider first Kepler target stars within the "solar subset" having T eff = 4100-6100K, log g = 4.0-4.9, and Kepler magnitude Kp < 15 mag, i.e., bright, main-sequence GK stars. We include only those stars having photometric noise low enough to permit detection of planets down to 2 R . We count planets in small domains of R p and P and divide by the included target stars to calculate planet occurrence in each domain. The resulting occurrence of planets varies by more than three orders of magnitude in the radius-orbital period plane and increases substantially down to the smallest radius (2 R ) and out to the longest orbital period (50days, 0.25AU) in our study. For P < 50 days, the distribution of planet radii is given by a power law, df/dlog R = kRR α with kR = 2.9+0.5 - 0.4, α = -1.92 ± 0.11, and R ≡ R p/R . This rapid increase in planet occurrence with decreasing planet size agrees with the prediction of core-accretion formation but disagrees with population synthesis models that predict a desert at super-Earth and Neptune sizes for close-in orbits. Planets with orbital periods shorter than 2days are extremely rare; for R p > 2 R we measure an occurrence of less than 0.001 planets per star. For all planets with orbital periods less than 50days, we measure occurrence of 0.130 ± 0.008, 0.023 ± 0.003, and 0.013 ± 0.002 planets per star for planets with radii 2-4, 4-8, and 8-32 R , in agreement with Doppler surveys. We fit occurrence as a function of P to a power-law model with an exponential cutoff below a critical period P 0. For smaller planets, P 0 has larger values, suggesting that the "parking distance" for migrating planets moves outward with decreasing planet size. We also measured planet occurrence over a broader stellar T eff range of 3600-7100K, spanning M0 to F2 dwarfs. Over this range, the occurrence of 2-4 R planets in the Kepler field increases with decreasing T eff, with these small planets being seven times more abundant around cool stars (3600-4100K) than the hottest stars in our sample (6600-7100K).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Volume201
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2012

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planets
planet
occurrences
stars
orbitals
radii
Kepler mission
parking
cool stars
hot stars
transit
set theory
power law
cut-off

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Howard, A. W., Marcy, G. W., Bryson, S. T., Jenkins, J. M., Rowe, J. F., Batalha, N. M., ... MacQueen, P. J. (2012). Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, 201(2), [15]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15
Howard, Andrew W. ; Marcy, Geoffrey W. ; Bryson, Stephen T. ; Jenkins, Jon M. ; Rowe, Jason F. ; Batalha, Natalie M. ; Borucki, William J. ; Koch, David G. ; Dunham, Edward W. ; Gautier, Thomas N. ; Van Cleve, Jeffrey ; Cochran, William D. ; Latham, David W. ; Lissauer, Jack J. ; Torres, Guillermo ; Brown, Timothy M. ; Gilliland, Ronald Lynn ; Buchhave, Lars A. ; Caldwell, Douglas A. ; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen ; Ciardi, David ; Fressin, Francois ; Haas, Michael R. ; Howell, Steve B. ; Kjeldsen, Hans ; Seager, Sara ; Rogers, Leslie ; Sasselov, Dimitar D. ; Steffen, Jason H. ; Basri, Gibor S. ; Charbonneau, David ; Christiansen, Jessie ; Clarke, Bruce ; Dupree, Andrea ; Fabrycky, Daniel C. ; Fischer, Debra A. ; Ford, Eric B. ; Fortney, Jonathan J. ; Tarter, Jill ; Girouard, Forrest R. ; Holman, Matthew J. ; Johnson, John Asher ; Klaus, Todd C. ; MacHalek, Pavel ; Moorhead, Althea V. ; Morehead, Robert C. ; Ragozzine, Darin ; Tenenbaum, Peter ; Twicken, Joseph D. ; Quinn, Samuel N. ; Isaacson, Howard ; Shporer, Avi ; Lucas, Philip W. ; Walkowicz, Lucianne M. ; Welsh, William F. ; Boss, Alan ; Devore, Edna ; Gould, Alan ; Smith, Jeffrey C. ; Morris, Robert L. ; Prsa, Andrej ; Morton, Timothy D. ; Still, Martin ; Thompson, Susan E. ; Mullally, Fergal ; Endl, Michael ; MacQueen, Phillip J. / Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler. In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2012 ; Vol. 201, No. 2.
@article{1434584448cb487dbbe03609cdac9c55,
title = "Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler",
abstract = "We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the 1235 planets (formally {"}planet candidates{"}) from the Kepler mission that include a nearly complete set of detected planets as small as 2 R ⊕. For each of the 156,000 target stars, we assess the detectability of planets as a function of planet radius, R p, and orbital period, P, using a measure of the detection efficiency for each star. We also correct for the geometric probability of transit, R /a. We consider first Kepler target stars within the {"}solar subset{"} having T eff = 4100-6100K, log g = 4.0-4.9, and Kepler magnitude Kp < 15 mag, i.e., bright, main-sequence GK stars. We include only those stars having photometric noise low enough to permit detection of planets down to 2 R ⊕. We count planets in small domains of R p and P and divide by the included target stars to calculate planet occurrence in each domain. The resulting occurrence of planets varies by more than three orders of magnitude in the radius-orbital period plane and increases substantially down to the smallest radius (2 R ⊕) and out to the longest orbital period (50days, 0.25AU) in our study. For P < 50 days, the distribution of planet radii is given by a power law, df/dlog R = kRR α with kR = 2.9+0.5 - 0.4, α = -1.92 ± 0.11, and R ≡ R p/R ⊕. This rapid increase in planet occurrence with decreasing planet size agrees with the prediction of core-accretion formation but disagrees with population synthesis models that predict a desert at super-Earth and Neptune sizes for close-in orbits. Planets with orbital periods shorter than 2days are extremely rare; for R p > 2 R ⊕ we measure an occurrence of less than 0.001 planets per star. For all planets with orbital periods less than 50days, we measure occurrence of 0.130 ± 0.008, 0.023 ± 0.003, and 0.013 ± 0.002 planets per star for planets with radii 2-4, 4-8, and 8-32 R ⊕, in agreement with Doppler surveys. We fit occurrence as a function of P to a power-law model with an exponential cutoff below a critical period P 0. For smaller planets, P 0 has larger values, suggesting that the {"}parking distance{"} for migrating planets moves outward with decreasing planet size. We also measured planet occurrence over a broader stellar T eff range of 3600-7100K, spanning M0 to F2 dwarfs. Over this range, the occurrence of 2-4 R ⊕ planets in the Kepler field increases with decreasing T eff, with these small planets being seven times more abundant around cool stars (3600-4100K) than the hottest stars in our sample (6600-7100K).",
author = "Howard, {Andrew W.} and Marcy, {Geoffrey W.} and Bryson, {Stephen T.} and Jenkins, {Jon M.} and Rowe, {Jason F.} and Batalha, {Natalie M.} and Borucki, {William J.} and Koch, {David G.} and Dunham, {Edward W.} and Gautier, {Thomas N.} and {Van Cleve}, Jeffrey and Cochran, {William D.} and Latham, {David W.} and Lissauer, {Jack J.} and Guillermo Torres and Brown, {Timothy M.} and Gilliland, {Ronald Lynn} and Buchhave, {Lars A.} and Caldwell, {Douglas A.} and Jorgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and David Ciardi and Francois Fressin and Haas, {Michael R.} and Howell, {Steve B.} and Hans Kjeldsen and Sara Seager and Leslie Rogers and Sasselov, {Dimitar D.} and Steffen, {Jason H.} and Basri, {Gibor S.} and David Charbonneau and Jessie Christiansen and Bruce Clarke and Andrea Dupree and Fabrycky, {Daniel C.} and Fischer, {Debra A.} and Ford, {Eric B.} and Fortney, {Jonathan J.} and Jill Tarter and Girouard, {Forrest R.} and Holman, {Matthew J.} and Johnson, {John Asher} and Klaus, {Todd C.} and Pavel MacHalek and Moorhead, {Althea V.} and Morehead, {Robert C.} and Darin Ragozzine and Peter Tenenbaum and Twicken, {Joseph D.} and Quinn, {Samuel N.} and Howard Isaacson and Avi Shporer and Lucas, {Philip W.} and Walkowicz, {Lucianne M.} and Welsh, {William F.} and Alan Boss and Edna Devore and Alan Gould and Smith, {Jeffrey C.} and Morris, {Robert L.} and Andrej Prsa and Morton, {Timothy D.} and Martin Still and Thompson, {Susan E.} and Fergal Mullally and Michael Endl and MacQueen, {Phillip J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
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doi = "10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series",
issn = "0067-0049",
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Howard, AW, Marcy, GW, Bryson, ST, Jenkins, JM, Rowe, JF, Batalha, NM, Borucki, WJ, Koch, DG, Dunham, EW, Gautier, TN, Van Cleve, J, Cochran, WD, Latham, DW, Lissauer, JJ, Torres, G, Brown, TM, Gilliland, RL, Buchhave, LA, Caldwell, DA, Christensen-Dalsgaard, J, Ciardi, D, Fressin, F, Haas, MR, Howell, SB, Kjeldsen, H, Seager, S, Rogers, L, Sasselov, DD, Steffen, JH, Basri, GS, Charbonneau, D, Christiansen, J, Clarke, B, Dupree, A, Fabrycky, DC, Fischer, DA, Ford, EB, Fortney, JJ, Tarter, J, Girouard, FR, Holman, MJ, Johnson, JA, Klaus, TC, MacHalek, P, Moorhead, AV, Morehead, RC, Ragozzine, D, Tenenbaum, P, Twicken, JD, Quinn, SN, Isaacson, H, Shporer, A, Lucas, PW, Walkowicz, LM, Welsh, WF, Boss, A, Devore, E, Gould, A, Smith, JC, Morris, RL, Prsa, A, Morton, TD, Still, M, Thompson, SE, Mullally, F, Endl, M & MacQueen, PJ 2012, 'Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler', Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, vol. 201, no. 2, 15. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15

Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler. / Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Rowe, Jason F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Cochran, William D.; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Torres, Guillermo; Brown, Timothy M.; Gilliland, Ronald Lynn; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Ciardi, David; Fressin, Francois; Haas, Michael R.; Howell, Steve B.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Seager, Sara; Rogers, Leslie; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Steffen, Jason H.; Basri, Gibor S.; Charbonneau, David; Christiansen, Jessie; Clarke, Bruce; Dupree, Andrea; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fischer, Debra A.; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Tarter, Jill; Girouard, Forrest R.; Holman, Matthew J.; Johnson, John Asher; Klaus, Todd C.; MacHalek, Pavel; Moorhead, Althea V.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Isaacson, Howard; Shporer, Avi; Lucas, Philip W.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Welsh, William F.; Boss, Alan; Devore, Edna; Gould, Alan; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Robert L.; Prsa, Andrej; Morton, Timothy D.; Still, Martin; Thompson, Susan E.; Mullally, Fergal; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series, Vol. 201, No. 2, 15, 01.08.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler

AU - Howard, Andrew W.

AU - Marcy, Geoffrey W.

AU - Bryson, Stephen T.

AU - Jenkins, Jon M.

AU - Rowe, Jason F.

AU - Batalha, Natalie M.

AU - Borucki, William J.

AU - Koch, David G.

AU - Dunham, Edward W.

AU - Gautier, Thomas N.

AU - Van Cleve, Jeffrey

AU - Cochran, William D.

AU - Latham, David W.

AU - Lissauer, Jack J.

AU - Torres, Guillermo

AU - Brown, Timothy M.

AU - Gilliland, Ronald Lynn

AU - Buchhave, Lars A.

AU - Caldwell, Douglas A.

AU - Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen

AU - Ciardi, David

AU - Fressin, Francois

AU - Haas, Michael R.

AU - Howell, Steve B.

AU - Kjeldsen, Hans

AU - Seager, Sara

AU - Rogers, Leslie

AU - Sasselov, Dimitar D.

AU - Steffen, Jason H.

AU - Basri, Gibor S.

AU - Charbonneau, David

AU - Christiansen, Jessie

AU - Clarke, Bruce

AU - Dupree, Andrea

AU - Fabrycky, Daniel C.

AU - Fischer, Debra A.

AU - Ford, Eric B.

AU - Fortney, Jonathan J.

AU - Tarter, Jill

AU - Girouard, Forrest R.

AU - Holman, Matthew J.

AU - Johnson, John Asher

AU - Klaus, Todd C.

AU - MacHalek, Pavel

AU - Moorhead, Althea V.

AU - Morehead, Robert C.

AU - Ragozzine, Darin

AU - Tenenbaum, Peter

AU - Twicken, Joseph D.

AU - Quinn, Samuel N.

AU - Isaacson, Howard

AU - Shporer, Avi

AU - Lucas, Philip W.

AU - Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

AU - Welsh, William F.

AU - Boss, Alan

AU - Devore, Edna

AU - Gould, Alan

AU - Smith, Jeffrey C.

AU - Morris, Robert L.

AU - Prsa, Andrej

AU - Morton, Timothy D.

AU - Still, Martin

AU - Thompson, Susan E.

AU - Mullally, Fergal

AU - Endl, Michael

AU - MacQueen, Phillip J.

PY - 2012/8/1

Y1 - 2012/8/1

N2 - We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the 1235 planets (formally "planet candidates") from the Kepler mission that include a nearly complete set of detected planets as small as 2 R ⊕. For each of the 156,000 target stars, we assess the detectability of planets as a function of planet radius, R p, and orbital period, P, using a measure of the detection efficiency for each star. We also correct for the geometric probability of transit, R /a. We consider first Kepler target stars within the "solar subset" having T eff = 4100-6100K, log g = 4.0-4.9, and Kepler magnitude Kp < 15 mag, i.e., bright, main-sequence GK stars. We include only those stars having photometric noise low enough to permit detection of planets down to 2 R ⊕. We count planets in small domains of R p and P and divide by the included target stars to calculate planet occurrence in each domain. The resulting occurrence of planets varies by more than three orders of magnitude in the radius-orbital period plane and increases substantially down to the smallest radius (2 R ⊕) and out to the longest orbital period (50days, 0.25AU) in our study. For P < 50 days, the distribution of planet radii is given by a power law, df/dlog R = kRR α with kR = 2.9+0.5 - 0.4, α = -1.92 ± 0.11, and R ≡ R p/R ⊕. This rapid increase in planet occurrence with decreasing planet size agrees with the prediction of core-accretion formation but disagrees with population synthesis models that predict a desert at super-Earth and Neptune sizes for close-in orbits. Planets with orbital periods shorter than 2days are extremely rare; for R p > 2 R ⊕ we measure an occurrence of less than 0.001 planets per star. For all planets with orbital periods less than 50days, we measure occurrence of 0.130 ± 0.008, 0.023 ± 0.003, and 0.013 ± 0.002 planets per star for planets with radii 2-4, 4-8, and 8-32 R ⊕, in agreement with Doppler surveys. We fit occurrence as a function of P to a power-law model with an exponential cutoff below a critical period P 0. For smaller planets, P 0 has larger values, suggesting that the "parking distance" for migrating planets moves outward with decreasing planet size. We also measured planet occurrence over a broader stellar T eff range of 3600-7100K, spanning M0 to F2 dwarfs. Over this range, the occurrence of 2-4 R ⊕ planets in the Kepler field increases with decreasing T eff, with these small planets being seven times more abundant around cool stars (3600-4100K) than the hottest stars in our sample (6600-7100K).

AB - We report the distribution of planets as a function of planet radius, orbital period, and stellar effective temperature for orbital periods less than 50days around solar-type (GK) stars. These results are based on the 1235 planets (formally "planet candidates") from the Kepler mission that include a nearly complete set of detected planets as small as 2 R ⊕. For each of the 156,000 target stars, we assess the detectability of planets as a function of planet radius, R p, and orbital period, P, using a measure of the detection efficiency for each star. We also correct for the geometric probability of transit, R /a. We consider first Kepler target stars within the "solar subset" having T eff = 4100-6100K, log g = 4.0-4.9, and Kepler magnitude Kp < 15 mag, i.e., bright, main-sequence GK stars. We include only those stars having photometric noise low enough to permit detection of planets down to 2 R ⊕. We count planets in small domains of R p and P and divide by the included target stars to calculate planet occurrence in each domain. The resulting occurrence of planets varies by more than three orders of magnitude in the radius-orbital period plane and increases substantially down to the smallest radius (2 R ⊕) and out to the longest orbital period (50days, 0.25AU) in our study. For P < 50 days, the distribution of planet radii is given by a power law, df/dlog R = kRR α with kR = 2.9+0.5 - 0.4, α = -1.92 ± 0.11, and R ≡ R p/R ⊕. This rapid increase in planet occurrence with decreasing planet size agrees with the prediction of core-accretion formation but disagrees with population synthesis models that predict a desert at super-Earth and Neptune sizes for close-in orbits. Planets with orbital periods shorter than 2days are extremely rare; for R p > 2 R ⊕ we measure an occurrence of less than 0.001 planets per star. For all planets with orbital periods less than 50days, we measure occurrence of 0.130 ± 0.008, 0.023 ± 0.003, and 0.013 ± 0.002 planets per star for planets with radii 2-4, 4-8, and 8-32 R ⊕, in agreement with Doppler surveys. We fit occurrence as a function of P to a power-law model with an exponential cutoff below a critical period P 0. For smaller planets, P 0 has larger values, suggesting that the "parking distance" for migrating planets moves outward with decreasing planet size. We also measured planet occurrence over a broader stellar T eff range of 3600-7100K, spanning M0 to F2 dwarfs. Over this range, the occurrence of 2-4 R ⊕ planets in the Kepler field increases with decreasing T eff, with these small planets being seven times more abundant around cool stars (3600-4100K) than the hottest stars in our sample (6600-7100K).

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84863822941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84863822941&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15

DO - 10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15

M3 - Review article

VL - 201

JO - Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series

JF - Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series

SN - 0067-0049

IS - 2

M1 - 15

ER -

Howard AW, Marcy GW, Bryson ST, Jenkins JM, Rowe JF, Batalha NM et al. Planet occurrence within 0.25AU of solar-type stars from Kepler. Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. 2012 Aug 1;201(2). 15. https://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0049/201/2/15