Metallic nanostructures with nanogap features are proved to be highly effective building blocks for plasmonic systems, as they can provide ultrastrong electromagnetic (EM) fields and controllable optical properties. A wide range of fields, including surface enhanced spectroscopy, sensing, imaging, nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and metamaterials, are benefited from these enhanced EM fields. This review outlines the latest development of the fabrication methods for nanogap structures (metal nanoparticle assembly, nanosphere lithography, electron beam lithography (EBL), focused ion beam (FIB) lithography, oblique angle shadow evaporation, edge lithography, and so on), followed by a summary of their optical applications. The present review will inspire more ingenious designs and fabrications of plasmonic nanogap structures with lithography-free fabrication techniques, and promote their applications in optics and electronics.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering