Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law

William E. Kovacic, Robert Clifford Marshall, Leslie M. Marx, Halbert L. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Plus factors are economic actions and outcomes, above and beyond parallel conduct by oligopolistic firms, that are largely inconsistent with unilateral conduct but largely consistent with explicitly coordinated action. Possible plus factors are typically enumerated without any attempt to distinguish them in terms of a meaningful economic categorization or in terms of their probative strength for inferring collusion. In this Article, we provide a taxonomy for plus factors as well as a methodology for ranking plus factors in terms of their strength for inferring explicit collusion, the strongest of which are referred to as "super plus factors".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-436
Number of pages44
JournalMichigan Law Review
Volume110
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011

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economic action
antitrust law
taxonomy
ranking
firm
methodology
economics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Law

Cite this

Kovacic, W. E., Marshall, R. C., Marx, L. M., & White, H. L. (2011). Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law. Michigan Law Review, 110(3), 393-436.
Kovacic, William E. ; Marshall, Robert Clifford ; Marx, Leslie M. ; White, Halbert L. / Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law. In: Michigan Law Review. 2011 ; Vol. 110, No. 3. pp. 393-436.
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Kovacic, WE, Marshall, RC, Marx, LM & White, HL 2011, 'Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law', Michigan Law Review, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 393-436.

Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law. / Kovacic, William E.; Marshall, Robert Clifford; Marx, Leslie M.; White, Halbert L.

In: Michigan Law Review, Vol. 110, No. 3, 01.12.2011, p. 393-436.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Kovacic WE, Marshall RC, Marx LM, White HL. Plus factors and agreement in antitrust law. Michigan Law Review. 2011 Dec 1;110(3):393-436.