Recent non-volatile memory technologies such as 3D XPoint and NVDIMMs have enabled persistent memory (PM) systems that can manipulate persistent data directly in memory. This advancement of memory technology has spurred the development of a new set of crash-consistent software (CCS) for PM - applications that can recover persistent data from memory in a consistent state in the event of a crash (e.g., power failure). CCS developed for persistent memory ranges from kernel modules to user-space libraries and custom applications. However, ensuring crash consistency in CCS is difficult and error-prone. Programmers typically employ lowlevel hardware primitives or transactional libraries to enforce ordering and durability guarantees that are required for ensuring crash consistency. Unfortunately, hardware can reorder instructions at runtime, making it difficult for the programmers to test whether the implementation enforces the correct ordering and durability guarantees. We believe that there is an urgent need for developing a testing framework that helps programmers identify crash consistency bugs in their CCS. We find that prior testing tools lack generality, i.e., they work only for one specific CCS or memory persistency model and/or introduce significant performance overhead. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose PMTest1, a crash consistency testing framework that is both flexible and fast. PMTest provides flexibility by providing two basic assertion-like software checkers to test two fundamental characteristics of all CCS: The ordering and durability guarantee. These checkers can also serve as the building blocks of other application-specific, high-level checkers. PMTest enables fast testing by deducing the persist order without exhausting all possible orders. In the evaluation with eight programs, PMTest not only identified 45 synthetic crash consistency bugs, but also detected 3 new bugs in a file system (PMFS) and in applications developed using a transactional library (PMDK), while on average being 7.1× faster than the state-of-the-art tool.