The current study examined the situational and community factors that affect police use of nonlethal force in New York City. Although a number of studies explored either situational factors at the incident-level or community factors at the neighbourhood level, only a few tested for interaction between the two levels. Using multiple data sources, the current study features hierarchical generalised linear modelling for both independent and cross-level interaction effects of situational and community factors. The findings suggest that the police use of nonlethal force was associated with suspect's race and other situational factors. Notably, the effects of race and seriousness of the offence appear to hinge upon the community characteristics. Findings are further discussed for policy implications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Sociology and Political Science