Ionic clustering, water binding, and ion conductivity were studied in polymers functionalized with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium hydroxide groups. Small-angle x-ray scattering showed that no clustering occurred in the quaternary ammonium containing anion exchange membranes, while evidence of ionic clusters was present in both sulfonated poly(phenylene) and in Nafion, a poly(perfluorosulfonic acid). Interestingly, the water self-diffusion coefficients of the anion exchange membranes were generally greater than those observed for the sulfonated poly-(phenylene)s, and moreover, the water self diffusion coefficients in anion exchange membranes were not a strong function of diffusion time. The water binding behavior lead to increased normalized conductivity in anion exchange membranes as compared to proton exchange membranes at the highest ion exchange capacities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Organic Chemistry
- Polymers and Plastics
- Materials Chemistry