Background: The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) deletion allele, ACE D, is associated with increased ACE activity and adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease. Although activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) now appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF), it remains to be determined if ACE genotype impacts response to conventional AAD therapy in patients with AF. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether response to antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy in patients with AF is modulated by the ACE I/D polymorphism. Methods: We studied 213 patients (147 men, 66 women; ages 52 ± 15 years) prospectively enrolled in the Vanderbilt AF Registry. AAD therapy outcome was defined prospectively as response if there was a ≥75% reduction in symptomatic AF burden or nonresponse if AF burden was unchanged, necessitating a change in drugs or therapy. Results: Lone AF (age <65 years, no identifiable cause) was present in 72 (34%) patients, whereas hypertension was the most common underlying disease in the remaining 141 (41%). AF was paroxysmal in 170 (80%) and persistent in 43 (20%). The frequencies of the DD, ID, and II genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Lone AF and DD/ID genotypes were highly significant predictors of failure of drug therapy (P <.005). In patients with lone AF, failure of drug response was 5%, 41%, and 47% in patients with II, ID, and DD genotypes, respectively, (P <.005, II vs. ID/DD). Conclusions: These results provide further evidence for a role of RAAS activation in the pathophysiology of AF and point to a potential role for stratification of therapeutic approaches by ACE genotype.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)