A polysulfone-based anion exchange membrane functionalized with quaternary benzyl trimethylammonium groups (PSF-TMA+) demonstrated a 40-fold reduction in vanadium(iv) permeability when compared to a Nafion® membrane. Comprehensive 2D NMR (COSY and heteronuclear quantum correlation spectroscopy) studies verified that PSF-TMA+ remained chemically stable even after exposure to a 1.5 M vanadium(v) solution for 90 days. Excellent energy efficiencies (85%) were attained and sustained over several charge-discharge cycles for a vanadium redox flow battery prepared using the PSF-TMA+ separator.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)