Do agriculturists in the Third World sometimes adjust to increasing population density by having fewer children? Over-time data (1961-1972) for 22 farm villages in India point to such a possibility. Cross-sectionally, villages with higher density tend to have lower fertility, even with controls for village caste composition, prior fertility, female literacy, and agricultural production. Similarly, the regression coefficient for village density is negative when the cross-sections are "pooled." Population density apparently has an inhibiting effect on fertility in these villages.
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