Surveys for crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB) of Algerian wheat conducted during 2014 and 2015 revealed that Fusarium culmorum strains producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) or nivalenol (NIV) were the causal agents of these important diseases. Morphological identification of the isolates (n FCR = 110, n FHB = 30) was confirmed by sequencing a portion of TEF1. To assess mating type idiomorph, trichothecene chemotype potential and global population structure, the Algerian strains were compared with preliminary sample of F. culmorum from Italy (n = 27), Australia (n = 30) and the United States (n = 28). A PCR assay for MAT idiomorph revealed that MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 strains were segregating in nearly equal proportions, except within Algeria where two-thirds of the strains were MAT1-2. An allele-specific PCR assay indicated that the 3ADON trichothecene genotype was predominant globally (83.8% 3ADON) and in each of the four countries sampled. In vitro toxin analyses confirmed trichothecene genotype PCR data and demonstrated that most of the strains tested (77%) produced culmorin. Global population genetic structure of 191 strains was assessed using nine microsatellite markers (SSRs). AMOVA of the clone corrected data indicated that 89% of the variation was within populations. Bayesian analysis of the SSR data identified two globally distributed, sympatric populations within which both trichothecene chemotypes and mating types were represented.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes