Abstract

The scalability of cell aggregates such as spheroids, strands, and rings has been restricted by diffusion of nutrient and oxygen into their core. In this study, we introduce a novel concept in generating tissue building blocks with micropores, which represents an alternative solution for vascularization. Sodium alginate porogens were mixed with human adipose-derived stem cells, and loaded into tubular alginate capsules, followed by de-crosslinking of the capsules. The resultant cellular structure exhibited a porous morphology and formed cell aggregates in the form of strands, called 'porous tissue strands (pTSs).' Three-dimensional reconstructions show that pTSs were able to maintain ∼25% porosity with a high pore interconnectivity (∼85%) for 3 weeks. Owing to the porous structure, pTSs showed up-regulated cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to solid counterparts throughout the culture period. pTSs also demonstrated self-assembly capability through tissue fusion yielding larger-scale patches. In this paper, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of pTSs were also demonstrated, where the porous microstructure up-regulated both chondrogenic and osteogenic functionalities indicated by cartilage- and bone-specific immunostaining, quantitative biochemical assessment and gene expression. These findings indicated the functionality of pTSs, which possessed controllable porosity and self-assembly capability, and had great potential to be utilized as tissue building blocks in distinct applications such as cartilage and bone regeneration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number015009
JournalBiofabrication
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Tissue
Fabrication
Porosity
Cartilage
Self assembly
Capsules
Bone
Chondrogenesis
Sodium alginate
Bone Regeneration
Alginate
Cellular Structures
Stem cells
Osteogenesis
Gene expression
Crosslinking
Nutrients
Scalability
Cell Survival
Fusion reactions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

@article{491b66fdcd4b45eeb114a92c18aef80a,
title = "Porous tissue strands: Avascular building blocks for scalable tissue fabrication",
abstract = "The scalability of cell aggregates such as spheroids, strands, and rings has been restricted by diffusion of nutrient and oxygen into their core. In this study, we introduce a novel concept in generating tissue building blocks with micropores, which represents an alternative solution for vascularization. Sodium alginate porogens were mixed with human adipose-derived stem cells, and loaded into tubular alginate capsules, followed by de-crosslinking of the capsules. The resultant cellular structure exhibited a porous morphology and formed cell aggregates in the form of strands, called 'porous tissue strands (pTSs).' Three-dimensional reconstructions show that pTSs were able to maintain ∼25{\%} porosity with a high pore interconnectivity (∼85{\%}) for 3 weeks. Owing to the porous structure, pTSs showed up-regulated cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to solid counterparts throughout the culture period. pTSs also demonstrated self-assembly capability through tissue fusion yielding larger-scale patches. In this paper, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of pTSs were also demonstrated, where the porous microstructure up-regulated both chondrogenic and osteogenic functionalities indicated by cartilage- and bone-specific immunostaining, quantitative biochemical assessment and gene expression. These findings indicated the functionality of pTSs, which possessed controllable porosity and self-assembly capability, and had great potential to be utilized as tissue building blocks in distinct applications such as cartilage and bone regeneration.",
author = "Yang Wu and Monika Hospodiuk and Weijie Peng and Hemanth Gudapati and Thomas Neuberger and Srinivas Koduru and Dino Ravnic and Ozbolat, {Ibrahim Tarik}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1088/1758-5090/aaec22",
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Porous tissue strands : Avascular building blocks for scalable tissue fabrication. / Wu, Yang; Hospodiuk, Monika; Peng, Weijie; Gudapati, Hemanth; Neuberger, Thomas; Koduru, Srinivas; Ravnic, Dino; Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik.

In: Biofabrication, Vol. 11, No. 1, 015009, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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T2 - Avascular building blocks for scalable tissue fabrication

AU - Wu, Yang

AU - Hospodiuk, Monika

AU - Peng, Weijie

AU - Gudapati, Hemanth

AU - Neuberger, Thomas

AU - Koduru, Srinivas

AU - Ravnic, Dino

AU - Ozbolat, Ibrahim Tarik

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The scalability of cell aggregates such as spheroids, strands, and rings has been restricted by diffusion of nutrient and oxygen into their core. In this study, we introduce a novel concept in generating tissue building blocks with micropores, which represents an alternative solution for vascularization. Sodium alginate porogens were mixed with human adipose-derived stem cells, and loaded into tubular alginate capsules, followed by de-crosslinking of the capsules. The resultant cellular structure exhibited a porous morphology and formed cell aggregates in the form of strands, called 'porous tissue strands (pTSs).' Three-dimensional reconstructions show that pTSs were able to maintain ∼25% porosity with a high pore interconnectivity (∼85%) for 3 weeks. Owing to the porous structure, pTSs showed up-regulated cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to solid counterparts throughout the culture period. pTSs also demonstrated self-assembly capability through tissue fusion yielding larger-scale patches. In this paper, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of pTSs were also demonstrated, where the porous microstructure up-regulated both chondrogenic and osteogenic functionalities indicated by cartilage- and bone-specific immunostaining, quantitative biochemical assessment and gene expression. These findings indicated the functionality of pTSs, which possessed controllable porosity and self-assembly capability, and had great potential to be utilized as tissue building blocks in distinct applications such as cartilage and bone regeneration.

AB - The scalability of cell aggregates such as spheroids, strands, and rings has been restricted by diffusion of nutrient and oxygen into their core. In this study, we introduce a novel concept in generating tissue building blocks with micropores, which represents an alternative solution for vascularization. Sodium alginate porogens were mixed with human adipose-derived stem cells, and loaded into tubular alginate capsules, followed by de-crosslinking of the capsules. The resultant cellular structure exhibited a porous morphology and formed cell aggregates in the form of strands, called 'porous tissue strands (pTSs).' Three-dimensional reconstructions show that pTSs were able to maintain ∼25% porosity with a high pore interconnectivity (∼85%) for 3 weeks. Owing to the porous structure, pTSs showed up-regulated cell viability and proliferation rate as compared to solid counterparts throughout the culture period. pTSs also demonstrated self-assembly capability through tissue fusion yielding larger-scale patches. In this paper, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of pTSs were also demonstrated, where the porous microstructure up-regulated both chondrogenic and osteogenic functionalities indicated by cartilage- and bone-specific immunostaining, quantitative biochemical assessment and gene expression. These findings indicated the functionality of pTSs, which possessed controllable porosity and self-assembly capability, and had great potential to be utilized as tissue building blocks in distinct applications such as cartilage and bone regeneration.

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