Post-stroke DHA Treatment Protects Against Acute Ischemic Brain Injury by Skewing Macrophage Polarity Toward the M2 Phenotype

Wei Cai, Sanxin Liu, Mengyan Hu, Xiaobo Sun, Wei Qiu, Song Guo Zheng, Xiaoming Hu, Zhengqi Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Systemic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been explored as a clinically feasible protectant in stroke models. However, the mechanism for DHA-afforded neuroprotection remains elusive. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced for 1 h. DHA (i.p., 10 mg/kg) was administered immediately after reperfusion and repeated daily for 3 days. Stroke outcomes, systemic inflammatory status, and microglia/macrophage phenotypic alterations were assessed 3 days after stroke. Macrophage depletion was induced by clodronate liposomes injection. Primary macrophage cultures were used to evaluate the direct effect of DHA on macrophages. We demonstrated that post-stroke DHA injection efficiently reduced brain infarct and ameliorated neurological deficits 3 days after tMCAO. Systemic DHA treatment significantly inhibited immune cell infiltration (macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes) and promoted macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain. Meanwhile, systemic DHA administration inhibited the otherwise elevated pro-inflammatory factors in blood and shifted circulating macrophage polarity toward M2 phenotype after ischemic stroke. The numbers of circulating immune cells in blood and spleen, however, were equivalent between DHA- and vehicle-treated groups. The protective effects of DHA were macrophage-dependent, as macrophage depletion abolished DHA-afforded neuroprotection. In vitro studies confirmed that DHA suppressed production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages under inflammatory stimulation. These data indicate that post-stroke DHA treatment ameliorated acute ischemic brain injury in a macrophage-dependent manner and DHA enhanced macrophage phenotypic shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype to reduced central and peripheral inflammation after stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTranslational Stroke Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Docosahexaenoic Acids
Brain Injuries
Stroke
Macrophages
Phenotype
Therapeutics
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Clodronic Acid
Injections
Neutrophil Infiltration
Brain
Microglia
Chemokines
Liposomes
Reperfusion
Blood Cells
B-Lymphocytes
Spleen

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Cai, Wei ; Liu, Sanxin ; Hu, Mengyan ; Sun, Xiaobo ; Qiu, Wei ; Zheng, Song Guo ; Hu, Xiaoming ; Lu, Zhengqi. / Post-stroke DHA Treatment Protects Against Acute Ischemic Brain Injury by Skewing Macrophage Polarity Toward the M2 Phenotype. In: Translational Stroke Research. 2018.
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abstract = "Systemic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been explored as a clinically feasible protectant in stroke models. However, the mechanism for DHA-afforded neuroprotection remains elusive. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced for 1 h. DHA (i.p., 10 mg/kg) was administered immediately after reperfusion and repeated daily for 3 days. Stroke outcomes, systemic inflammatory status, and microglia/macrophage phenotypic alterations were assessed 3 days after stroke. Macrophage depletion was induced by clodronate liposomes injection. Primary macrophage cultures were used to evaluate the direct effect of DHA on macrophages. We demonstrated that post-stroke DHA injection efficiently reduced brain infarct and ameliorated neurological deficits 3 days after tMCAO. Systemic DHA treatment significantly inhibited immune cell infiltration (macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes) and promoted macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain. Meanwhile, systemic DHA administration inhibited the otherwise elevated pro-inflammatory factors in blood and shifted circulating macrophage polarity toward M2 phenotype after ischemic stroke. The numbers of circulating immune cells in blood and spleen, however, were equivalent between DHA- and vehicle-treated groups. The protective effects of DHA were macrophage-dependent, as macrophage depletion abolished DHA-afforded neuroprotection. In vitro studies confirmed that DHA suppressed production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages under inflammatory stimulation. These data indicate that post-stroke DHA treatment ameliorated acute ischemic brain injury in a macrophage-dependent manner and DHA enhanced macrophage phenotypic shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype to reduced central and peripheral inflammation after stroke.",
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Post-stroke DHA Treatment Protects Against Acute Ischemic Brain Injury by Skewing Macrophage Polarity Toward the M2 Phenotype. / Cai, Wei; Liu, Sanxin; Hu, Mengyan; Sun, Xiaobo; Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Song Guo; Hu, Xiaoming; Lu, Zhengqi.

In: Translational Stroke Research, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Post-stroke DHA Treatment Protects Against Acute Ischemic Brain Injury by Skewing Macrophage Polarity Toward the M2 Phenotype

AU - Cai, Wei

AU - Liu, Sanxin

AU - Hu, Mengyan

AU - Sun, Xiaobo

AU - Qiu, Wei

AU - Zheng, Song Guo

AU - Hu, Xiaoming

AU - Lu, Zhengqi

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N2 - Systemic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been explored as a clinically feasible protectant in stroke models. However, the mechanism for DHA-afforded neuroprotection remains elusive. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced for 1 h. DHA (i.p., 10 mg/kg) was administered immediately after reperfusion and repeated daily for 3 days. Stroke outcomes, systemic inflammatory status, and microglia/macrophage phenotypic alterations were assessed 3 days after stroke. Macrophage depletion was induced by clodronate liposomes injection. Primary macrophage cultures were used to evaluate the direct effect of DHA on macrophages. We demonstrated that post-stroke DHA injection efficiently reduced brain infarct and ameliorated neurological deficits 3 days after tMCAO. Systemic DHA treatment significantly inhibited immune cell infiltration (macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes) and promoted macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain. Meanwhile, systemic DHA administration inhibited the otherwise elevated pro-inflammatory factors in blood and shifted circulating macrophage polarity toward M2 phenotype after ischemic stroke. The numbers of circulating immune cells in blood and spleen, however, were equivalent between DHA- and vehicle-treated groups. The protective effects of DHA were macrophage-dependent, as macrophage depletion abolished DHA-afforded neuroprotection. In vitro studies confirmed that DHA suppressed production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages under inflammatory stimulation. These data indicate that post-stroke DHA treatment ameliorated acute ischemic brain injury in a macrophage-dependent manner and DHA enhanced macrophage phenotypic shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype to reduced central and peripheral inflammation after stroke.

AB - Systemic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been explored as a clinically feasible protectant in stroke models. However, the mechanism for DHA-afforded neuroprotection remains elusive. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced for 1 h. DHA (i.p., 10 mg/kg) was administered immediately after reperfusion and repeated daily for 3 days. Stroke outcomes, systemic inflammatory status, and microglia/macrophage phenotypic alterations were assessed 3 days after stroke. Macrophage depletion was induced by clodronate liposomes injection. Primary macrophage cultures were used to evaluate the direct effect of DHA on macrophages. We demonstrated that post-stroke DHA injection efficiently reduced brain infarct and ameliorated neurological deficits 3 days after tMCAO. Systemic DHA treatment significantly inhibited immune cell infiltration (macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes) and promoted macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype in the ischemic brain. Meanwhile, systemic DHA administration inhibited the otherwise elevated pro-inflammatory factors in blood and shifted circulating macrophage polarity toward M2 phenotype after ischemic stroke. The numbers of circulating immune cells in blood and spleen, however, were equivalent between DHA- and vehicle-treated groups. The protective effects of DHA were macrophage-dependent, as macrophage depletion abolished DHA-afforded neuroprotection. In vitro studies confirmed that DHA suppressed production of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages under inflammatory stimulation. These data indicate that post-stroke DHA treatment ameliorated acute ischemic brain injury in a macrophage-dependent manner and DHA enhanced macrophage phenotypic shift toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype to reduced central and peripheral inflammation after stroke.

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