Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training

Natalie Z.M. Eichner, Julian M. Gaitán, Nicole Gilbertson, Mahnoor Khurshid, Arthur Weltman, Steven K. Malin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We compared high-intensity interval versus continuous training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in people with prediabetes. What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that exercise improves the augmentation index during the postprandial state, but not the fasted state, in adults with prediabetes. However, the fasted augmentation index improved in relationship to exercise dose, as assessed by kilocalories per session. Collectively, these findings suggest that short-term exercise can improve arterial compliance in adults with prediabetes. Therefore, lifestyle interventions designed to reduce arterial stiffness could have considerable clinical impact. Abstract: People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, in part, owing to arterial stiffness mediated by low insulin sensitivity. However, the effect the intensity and/or amount (i.e. kilocalories per session) of short-term exercise training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased intensity and dose (i.e. amount) of exercise would be correlated with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. After randomization, 31 adults (age 61.4 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 32.1 ± 5.4 kg m−2) with prediabetes performed supervised continuous (CONT; n = 17; 70% of peak heart rate) or interval (INT; n = 14; 3 min at 50% of peak heart rate and 3 min at 90% of peak heart rate) cycling training for 60 min day−1 over 2 weeks. The amount of exercise was calculated using regression equations derived from oxygen uptake ((Formula presented.)) and heart rate. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AI) and cartoid–femoral pulse wave velocity], insulin and glucose were determined during a 180 min 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and analysed by the total area under the curve (tAUC) pre- versus post-training. The simple index of insulin sensitivity, (SIIS)OGTT, was calculated; aerobic fitness (peak (Formula presented.)) and body mass were also assessed. Short-term training had no effect on weight but did improve peak (Formula presented.) (P = 0.003), glucose tAUC180min (P = 0.01) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.002), independent of intensity. The CONT and INT exercise significantly reduced AI 2 h postprandial (P = 0.008) and tAUC180min (P = 0.03). Reductions in fasted AI were related to exercise dose (trend: r = −0.37, P = 0.055). Increased peak (Formula presented.) was linked to reduced fasted (r = −0.47, P = 0.01) and tAUC180min AI (r = −0.39, P = 0.05). Decreased AI tAUC180min was correlated with increased insulin sensitivity (r = −0.50, P = 0.009). Short-term CONT and INT training reduced postprandial arterial stiffness comparably in adults with prediabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-271
Number of pages8
JournalExperimental Physiology
Volume104
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

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Prediabetic State
Vascular Stiffness
Exercise
Insulin Resistance
Heart Rate
Fasting
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose
Pulse Wave Analysis
Random Allocation
Compliance
Area Under Curve
Life Style
Body Mass Index
Cardiovascular Diseases
Insulin
Oxygen
Weights and Measures

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Eichner, Natalie Z.M. ; Gaitán, Julian M. ; Gilbertson, Nicole ; Khurshid, Mahnoor ; Weltman, Arthur ; Malin, Steven K. / Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training. In: Experimental Physiology. 2019 ; Vol. 104, No. 2. pp. 264-271.
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abstract = "New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We compared high-intensity interval versus continuous training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in people with prediabetes. What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that exercise improves the augmentation index during the postprandial state, but not the fasted state, in adults with prediabetes. However, the fasted augmentation index improved in relationship to exercise dose, as assessed by kilocalories per session. Collectively, these findings suggest that short-term exercise can improve arterial compliance in adults with prediabetes. Therefore, lifestyle interventions designed to reduce arterial stiffness could have considerable clinical impact. Abstract: People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, in part, owing to arterial stiffness mediated by low insulin sensitivity. However, the effect the intensity and/or amount (i.e. kilocalories per session) of short-term exercise training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased intensity and dose (i.e. amount) of exercise would be correlated with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. After randomization, 31 adults (age 61.4 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 32.1 ± 5.4 kg m−2) with prediabetes performed supervised continuous (CONT; n = 17; 70{\%} of peak heart rate) or interval (INT; n = 14; 3 min at 50{\%} of peak heart rate and 3 min at 90{\%} of peak heart rate) cycling training for 60 min day−1 over 2 weeks. The amount of exercise was calculated using regression equations derived from oxygen uptake ((Formula presented.)) and heart rate. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AI) and cartoid–femoral pulse wave velocity], insulin and glucose were determined during a 180 min 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and analysed by the total area under the curve (tAUC) pre- versus post-training. The simple index of insulin sensitivity, (SIIS)OGTT, was calculated; aerobic fitness (peak (Formula presented.)) and body mass were also assessed. Short-term training had no effect on weight but did improve peak (Formula presented.) (P = 0.003), glucose tAUC180min (P = 0.01) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.002), independent of intensity. The CONT and INT exercise significantly reduced AI 2 h postprandial (P = 0.008) and tAUC180min (P = 0.03). Reductions in fasted AI were related to exercise dose (trend: r = −0.37, P = 0.055). Increased peak (Formula presented.) was linked to reduced fasted (r = −0.47, P = 0.01) and tAUC180min AI (r = −0.39, P = 0.05). Decreased AI tAUC180min was correlated with increased insulin sensitivity (r = −0.50, P = 0.009). Short-term CONT and INT training reduced postprandial arterial stiffness comparably in adults with prediabetes.",
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Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training. / Eichner, Natalie Z.M.; Gaitán, Julian M.; Gilbertson, Nicole; Khurshid, Mahnoor; Weltman, Arthur; Malin, Steven K.

In: Experimental Physiology, Vol. 104, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 264-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training

AU - Eichner, Natalie Z.M.

AU - Gaitán, Julian M.

AU - Gilbertson, Nicole

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AB - New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We compared high-intensity interval versus continuous training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in people with prediabetes. What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that exercise improves the augmentation index during the postprandial state, but not the fasted state, in adults with prediabetes. However, the fasted augmentation index improved in relationship to exercise dose, as assessed by kilocalories per session. Collectively, these findings suggest that short-term exercise can improve arterial compliance in adults with prediabetes. Therefore, lifestyle interventions designed to reduce arterial stiffness could have considerable clinical impact. Abstract: People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, in part, owing to arterial stiffness mediated by low insulin sensitivity. However, the effect the intensity and/or amount (i.e. kilocalories per session) of short-term exercise training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased intensity and dose (i.e. amount) of exercise would be correlated with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. After randomization, 31 adults (age 61.4 ± 8.3 years, body mass index 32.1 ± 5.4 kg m−2) with prediabetes performed supervised continuous (CONT; n = 17; 70% of peak heart rate) or interval (INT; n = 14; 3 min at 50% of peak heart rate and 3 min at 90% of peak heart rate) cycling training for 60 min day−1 over 2 weeks. The amount of exercise was calculated using regression equations derived from oxygen uptake ((Formula presented.)) and heart rate. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AI) and cartoid–femoral pulse wave velocity], insulin and glucose were determined during a 180 min 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and analysed by the total area under the curve (tAUC) pre- versus post-training. The simple index of insulin sensitivity, (SIIS)OGTT, was calculated; aerobic fitness (peak (Formula presented.)) and body mass were also assessed. Short-term training had no effect on weight but did improve peak (Formula presented.) (P = 0.003), glucose tAUC180min (P = 0.01) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.002), independent of intensity. The CONT and INT exercise significantly reduced AI 2 h postprandial (P = 0.008) and tAUC180min (P = 0.03). Reductions in fasted AI were related to exercise dose (trend: r = −0.37, P = 0.055). Increased peak (Formula presented.) was linked to reduced fasted (r = −0.47, P = 0.01) and tAUC180min AI (r = −0.39, P = 0.05). Decreased AI tAUC180min was correlated with increased insulin sensitivity (r = −0.50, P = 0.009). Short-term CONT and INT training reduced postprandial arterial stiffness comparably in adults with prediabetes.

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