Hsp104 is a hexameric AAA + ATPase and protein disaggregase found in yeast, which can be potentiated via mutations in its middle domain (MD) to counter toxic phase separation by TDP-43, FUS and a-synuclein connected to devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Subtle missense mutations in the Hsp104 MD can enhance activity, indicating that post-translational modification of specific MD residues might also potentiate Hsp104. Indeed, several serine and threonine residues throughout Hsp104 can be phosphorylated in vivo. Here, we introduce phosphomimetic aspartate or glutamate residues at these positions and assess Hsp104 activity. Remarkably, phosphomimetic T499D/E and S535D/E mutations in the MD enable Hsp104 to counter TDP-43, FUS and a-synuclein aggregation and toxicity in yeast, whereas T499A/V/I and S535A do not. Moreover, Hsp104 T499E and Hsp104 S535E exhibit enhanced ATPase activity and Hsp70-independent disaggregase activity in vitro. We suggest that phosphorylation of T499 or S535 may elicit enhanced Hsp104 disaggregase activity in a reversible and regulated manner.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology