Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles

Kandler Smith, Chao-yang Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

387 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A 1D electrochemical, lumped thermal model is used to explore pulse power limitations and thermal behavior of a 6 Ah, 72 cell, 276 V nominal Li-ion hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative/positive electrodes consistently cause end of high-rate (∼25 C) pulse discharge at the 2.7 V cell-1 minimum limit, indicating solid-state diffusion is the limiting mechanism. The 3.9 V cell-1 maximum limit, meant to protect the negative electrode from lithium deposition side reaction during charge, is overly conservative for high-rate (∼15 C) pulse charges initiated from states-of-charge (SOCs) less than 100%. Two-second maximum pulse charge rate from the 50% SOC initial condition can be increased by as much as 50% without risk of lithium deposition. Controlled to minimum/maximum voltage limits, the pack meets partnership for next generation vehicles (PNGV) power assist mode pulse power goals (at operating temperatures >16 °C), but falls short of the available energy goal. In a vehicle simulation, the pack generates heat at a 320 W rate on a US06 driving cycle at 25 °C, with more heat generated at lower temperatures. Less aggressive FUDS and HWFET cycles generate 6-12 times less heat. Contact resistance ohmic heating dominates all other mechanisms, followed by electrolyte phase ohmic heating. Reaction and electronic phase ohmic heats are negligible. A convective heat transfer coefficient of h = 10.1 W m-2 K-1 maintains cell temperature at or below the 52 °C PNGV operating limit under aggressive US06 driving.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)662-673
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume160
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 29 2006

Fingerprint

electric hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicles
electric batteries
lithium
pulses
heat
vehicles
ions
cells
Joule heating
Lithium
cycles
heating
electrodes
convective heat transfer
Electrodes
heat transfer coefficients
contact resistance
operating temperature
Contact resistance

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles",
abstract = "A 1D electrochemical, lumped thermal model is used to explore pulse power limitations and thermal behavior of a 6 Ah, 72 cell, 276 V nominal Li-ion hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) battery pack. Depleted/saturated active material Li surface concentrations in the negative/positive electrodes consistently cause end of high-rate (∼25 C) pulse discharge at the 2.7 V cell-1 minimum limit, indicating solid-state diffusion is the limiting mechanism. The 3.9 V cell-1 maximum limit, meant to protect the negative electrode from lithium deposition side reaction during charge, is overly conservative for high-rate (∼15 C) pulse charges initiated from states-of-charge (SOCs) less than 100{\%}. Two-second maximum pulse charge rate from the 50{\%} SOC initial condition can be increased by as much as 50{\%} without risk of lithium deposition. Controlled to minimum/maximum voltage limits, the pack meets partnership for next generation vehicles (PNGV) power assist mode pulse power goals (at operating temperatures >16 °C), but falls short of the available energy goal. In a vehicle simulation, the pack generates heat at a 320 W rate on a US06 driving cycle at 25 °C, with more heat generated at lower temperatures. Less aggressive FUDS and HWFET cycles generate 6-12 times less heat. Contact resistance ohmic heating dominates all other mechanisms, followed by electrolyte phase ohmic heating. Reaction and electronic phase ohmic heats are negligible. A convective heat transfer coefficient of h = 10.1 W m-2 K-1 maintains cell temperature at or below the 52 °C PNGV operating limit under aggressive US06 driving.",
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Power and thermal characterization of a lithium-ion battery pack for hybrid-electric vehicles. / Smith, Kandler; Wang, Chao-yang.

In: Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 160, No. 1, 29.09.2006, p. 662-673.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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